Skip to main content

Full text of "A theory of pure design; harmony, balance, rhythm"

See other formats











pC^- 

i: 




A THEORY OF PURE DESIGN 



A THEORY OF 

PURE DESIGN 

, balance, 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND DIAGRAMS 



BY DENMAN W. ROSS, PH.D. 

LECTURER ON THE THEORY OF DESIGN IN HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY, FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY 

OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 



BOSTON AND NEW YORK 

HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY 

MDCCCCVII 



COPYRIGHT 1907 BY DENMAN W. ROSS 
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



NC 

703 



Published April, 7907 



' 



R A 






978023 



PREFACE 

MY purpose in this book is to elucidate, so far as I can, the 
principles which underlie the practice of drawing and painting 
as a Fine Art. Art is generally regarded as the expression of 
feelings and emotions which have no explanation except per- 
haps in such a word as inspiration, which is expletive rather 
than explanatory. Art is regarded as the one activity of man 
which has no scientific basis, and the appreciation of Art is 
said to be a matter of taste in which no two persons can be 
expected to agree. It is my purpose in this book to show how, 
in the practice of Art, as in all other practices, we use certain 
terms and follow certain principles. Being defined and ex- 
plained, these terms and principles may be known and under- 
stood by everybody. They are, so to speak, the form of the 
language. 

While an understanding of the terms and principles of Art 
will not, in itself, enable any one to produce important works, 
such works are not produced without it. It must be understood, 
however, that the understanding of terms and principles 
is not, necessarily, an understanding in words. It may lie in 
technical processes and in visual images and may never rise, 
or shall I say fall, to any formulation in words, either spoken 
or written. The terms and principles of Art have, as a rule, 
been understood by the artist in the form of technical pro- 
cesses and visual images, not in words. It is in words that 
they will become generally understood. It is in words that I 
propose to explain them in this book. I want to bring to defi- 
nition what, until now, has not been clearly defined or exactly 
measured. In a sense this book is a contribution to Science 
rather than to Art. It is a contribution to Science made by 
a painter, who has used his Art in order to understand his 
Art, not to produce Works of Art. In a passage of Plato 



vi PREFACE 

(Philebus, ^f 55) Socrates says: "If arithmetic, mensuration, 
and weighing be taken out of any art, that which remains 
will not be much." "Not much, certainly," was the reply. 
The only thing which remains in Art, beyond measurable 
quantities and qualities, is the personality, the peculiar ability 
or genius of the artist himself. That, I believe, admits of no 
explanation. The element of personality is what we mean 
when we speak of the element of inspiration in a Work of Art. 
Underlying this element of personality are the terms and 
principles of the art. In them the artist has found the possi- 
bility of expression ; in them his inspiration is conveyed to his 
fellowmen. I propose to explain, not the artist, but the mode 
of expression which the artist uses. My purpose, in scientific 
language, is to define, classify, and explain the phenomena of 
Design. In trying to do that, I have often been at a loss for 
terms and have been obliged, in certain instances, to use terms 
with new meanings, meanings which differ, more or less, 
from those of common usage and from those of writers in 
other branches of learning. In all such cases I have taken 
pains to define my terms and to make my meanings perfectly 
clear. I do not expect any one to read this book who is not 
willing to allow to my terms the meanings I have given them. 
Those who are unwilling to accept my definitions will cer- 
tainly not follow me to my conclusions. 

I am giving this book to the Public with great reluctance. 
Though I have had it in mind for many years and have put 
no end of thought and work into it, it seems to me inadequate 
and unsatisfactory. It will hardly be published before I shall 
discover in it errors both of omission and commission. The 
book presents a new definition of principles, a new association 
of ideas. It is inconceivable that this, my first published 
statement, should be either consistent or complete. It will 
be a long time, I am sure, before it can be brought to a 
satisfactory shape. It is simply the best statement that I can 
make at this time. One reason, perhaps my best reason, for 
publishing this Theory, before it is completely worked out, 



PREFACE vii 

is to bring other students into the investigation. I need their 
cooperation, their suggestions, and their criticisms. Without 
assistance from others the book would not be as good as it is. 
I am indebted to a number of persons for helpful sugges- 
tions. I am particularly indebted to three men, who have 
been associated with me in my teaching: William Luther 
Mowll, Henry Hunt Clark, and Edgar Oscar Parker. Each 
of them has had a share in the work. I am indebted to Pro- 
fessor Mowll for very important contributions to the doctrine 
of Rhythm, as it is presented in this book, and he has kindly 
helped me in the revision of the work for the press. My friend 
Dean Briggs has kindly read my proof sheets, and I am in- 
debted to him for many suggestions. 

DENMAN W. Ross. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 
February 16, 1907. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

POSITIONS IN HARMONY, BALANCE, AND RHYTHM 9 

LINES IN HARMONY, BALANCE, AND RHYTHM 37 

OUTLINES IN HARMONY, BALANCE, AND RHYTHM 96 

TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 131 

SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 143 

TONE-HARMONY 158 

TONE-BALANCE 172 

TONE-RHYTHM 182 

COMPOSITION. GENERAL RULES 186 

THE STUDY OF ORDER IN NATURE AND IN WORKS OF ART . . 190 

CONCLUSION 192 

PARAGRAPH INDEX . 195 



INTRODUCTION 

THE MEANING OF DESIGN 

1. BY Design I mean Order in human feeling and thought 
and in the many and varied activities by which that feeling 
or that thought is expressed. By Order I mean, particularly, 
three things, - - Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm. These 
are the principal modes in which Order is revealed in Nature 
and, through Design, in Works of Art. 

THE ORDER OF HARMONY 

2. Whenever two or more impressions or ideas have some- 
thing in common that is appreciable, they are in harmony, in 
the measure of what they have in common. The harmony 
increases as the common element increases; or the common 
elements. It diminishes in the measure of every difference 
or contrast. By the Order of Harmony I mean some recur- 
rence or repetition, some correspondence or likeness. The 
likeness may be in sounds or in sights, in muscular or other 
sense-impressions. It may lie in sensations, in perceptions, in 
ideas, in systems of thought. 

THE ORDER OF BALANCE 

8. By the Order of Balance I mean some equal opposition 
and consequent equilibrium, as it occurs at some moment 
of Time or at some point of Space; an equilibrium which 
induces, for the moment and in its place, a suspension of all 
change or movement, and causes a pause or a rest. The 
equilibrium may be one of physical forces (forces of weight 
or resistance) or forces of will. It may be an equilibrium of 
sense-impressions or attractions, of interests, of alternative 
propositions or ideas. It may be the equilibrium of a per- 
fect antithesis. Certain moments of Time, certain points of 



INTRODUCTION 

Space, are distinguished from others by instances of equili- 
brium or balance. The balance being lost, in any case, we 
have at once some movement. If this movement is regular, 
and marked in its regularity, we get, instead of Balance, 
Rhythm. 

THE ORDER OF RHYTHM 

4. By the Order of Rhythm I mean changes of sensation; 
changes in muscular impressions as we feel them, in sounds 
as we hear them, in sights as we see them; changes in objects, 
people, or things as we know them and think of them, changes 
which induce the feeling or idea of movement, either in the 
duration of Time or in the extension of Space; provided that 
the changes take place at regular and marked intervals of 
time or in regular and marked measures of space. By regular 
intervals and measures I mean equal or lawfully varying 
intervals and measures. I do not mean, by Rhythm, changes 
simply, inducing the sense or idea of movement: I mean, by 
Rhythm, a regularity of changes in a regularity of measures, 
with the effect of movement upon our minds. 

Rhythms in Time differ from Rhythms in Space, inasmuch 
as the movement in Time is in one direction, inevitably. It 
lies in the duration and passing of time, from which nothing 
escapes. The movement in space, on the contrary, may be 
in any one of many possible directions. A movement in dif- 
ferent directions, particularly in contrary directions, amounts 
to a negation of movement. In any space-rhythm, there- 
fore, the direction in which the rhythm leads us, the direction 
in which we follow it, must be unmistakable. 

5. Of these three principles of Order, the first and foremost, 
the most far-reaching and comprehensive, is the principle of 
Harmony. We have Harmony in all balances, and we have 
it also in all rhythms. It is, therefore, undesirable to think 
of the three principles as coordinate. It will be better to think 
of the principle of Harmony first, and then of two other 



INTRODUCTION 



principles, those of Balance and of Rhythm, as lying within 
the range of Harmony but not coextensive with it. We might 
express the idea in a logical diagram. 




Fig. 1 



Within the field of Harmony we have two distinct modes of 
Order Balance and Rhythm ; but we have Harmony be- 
yond the range of Balance and beyond the range of Rhythm. 
In cases where rhythms, corresponding in character and in 
direction of movement, are set side by side, one on the right, 
the other on the left, of a vertical axis, so that they balance, 
one against the other, and the vertical axis of the balance is 
the line of the movement, we have the union of all three prin- 
ciples. This idea, also, may be expressed in a logical diagram. 




Fig. 2 



Examples of this union of the three principles of Order will 
be given farther on. 



INTRODUCTION 



BEAUTY A SUPREME INSTANCE OF ORDER 

6. I refrain from any reference to Beauty as a principle of 
Design. It is not a principle, but an experience. It is an 
experience which defies analysis and has no explanation. 
We distinguish it from all other experiences. It gives us 
pleasure, perhaps the highest pleasure that we have. At the 
same time it is idle to talk about it, or to write about it. The 
less said about it the better. "It is beautiful," you say. Then 
somebody asks, "Why is it beautiful?" There is no answer 
to that question. You say it is beautiful because it gives 
you pleasure: but other things give you pleasure which are 
not beautiful. Pleasure is, therefore, no criterion of Beauty. 
What is the pleasure which Beauty gives ? It is the pleasure 
which you have in the sense of Beauty. That is all you can 
say. You cannot explain either the experience or the kind 
of pleasure which it gives you. 

While I am quite unable to give any definition or explana- 
tion of Beauty, I know where to look for it, where I am sure 
to find it. The Beautiful is revealed, always, so far as I know, 
in the forms of Order, in the modes of Harmony, of Balance, 
or of Rhythm. While there are many instances of Harmony, 
Balance, and Rhythm which are not particularly beautiful, 
there is, I believe, nothing really beautiful which is not 
orderly in one or the other, in two, or in all three of these 
modes. In seeking the Beautiful, therefore, we look for it in 
instances of Order, in instances of Harmony, Balance, and 
Rhythm. We shall find it in what may be called supreme 
instances. This is perhaps our nearest approach to a definition 
of Beauty: that it is a supreme instance of Order, intuitively 
felt, instinctively appreciated. 

THE ARTS AS DIFFERENT MODES OF EXPRESSION 

7. The Arts are different forms or modes of expression: 
modes of feeling, modes of thought, modes of action. There 
are many Arts in which different terms of expression, different 



INTRODUCTION 5 

materials, different methods are used. The principal Arts 
are (1) Gymnastics, including Dancing, (2) Music, (3) Speech, 
spoken and written, (4) Construction with all kinds of 
materials, (5) Sculpture, including Modeling and Carving, 
(6) Drawing and Painting. These are the principal Arts, but 
there are many others, more or less connected with them. 
Design comes into all of these Arts, bringing Order, in some 
cases Beauty. 

THE ART OF DRAWING AND PAINTING 

8. The Art which I have studied and practiced, the Art 
in which I am giving instruction, is that of Drawing and 
Painting. 

By the Art of Drawing and Painting I mean expression 
in pigment-tones (values, colors, intensities of color) spread 
in different measures or quantities and in different shapes: 
shapes being differences of character given to a line by its 
straightness or curvature, to a spot or area by its outline 
or contour. By Drawing and Painting I mean, therefore, 
expression by lines and spots of paint. 

TWO MODES OF DRAWING AND PAINTING 

9. There are two modes of Drawing and Painting, the 
mode of Pure Design and the mode of Representation. 

PURE DESIGN 

10. By Pure Design I mean simply Order, that is to say, 
Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm, in lines and spots of paint, 
in tones, measures, and shapes. Pure Design appeals to 
the eye just as absolute Music appeals to the ear. The pur- 
pose in Pure Design is to achieve Order in lines and spots 
of paint, if possible, the perfection of Order, a supreme 
instance of it, the Beautiful: this with no other, no further, 
no higher motive; just for the satisfaction, the pleasure, the 
delight of it. In the practice of Pure Design we aim at Order 
and hope for Beauty. Even the motive of giving pleasure to 



6 INTRODUCTION 

others lies beyond the proper purpose of Pure Design, though 
it constantly happens that in pleasing ourselves we give others 
pleasure. 

APPLICATIONS OF DESIGN 

11. The application of Design in the various Arts and 
Crafts is well understood and appreciated. We have many 
instances and examples in the Art of the Past. The possibility 
of Pure Design, pure Art, followed for the sake of Order and 
Beauty, with no purpose of service or of utility, is not at all 
understood or appreciated. I think of Pure Design as I think 
of Music. Music is the arrangement and composition of 
sounds for the sake of Order and Beauty, to give pleasure 
to the ear of the composer. Pure Design is the arrangement 
and composition of lines and spots of paint for the sake of 
Order and Beauty, to give pleasure to the eye of the designer. 
I am prepared to admit, however, that as Music, once created, 
being appropriate to the occasion when it is performed and 
to the mood of the listeners, may give pleasure to many per- 
sons, so Pure Design, once achieved, being appropriate to 
the time and the place of exhibition and to the mood of the 
beholders, may give pleasure to others besides the designer. 
In that sense, I am willing to allow that Pure Design may be 
Applied Art, Art applied in the service of Humanity, its 
purpose being to bring pleasure into human experience. The 
underlying motive of it, however, is found not in the service 
of humanity, but in the ideal of the artist. He aims at Order 
and hopes for Beauty, as the highest reward of his effort. 
John Sebastian Bach said of Music: "It is for the glory 
of God and a pleasant recreation." That is what I mean. 
The designer, like the musician, seeks first of all to achieve 
Order and Beauty for the sake of Order and Beauty. That 
is his religion, the worship of the Ideal. When the Ideal 
is realized, the object which has been produced may serve a 
useful purpose in giving pleasure, and perhaps inspiration, 
to others. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

The principles of Pure Design which are defined and 
illustrated in this book are the principles which should be 
followed in all applications of Design in the Arts and Crafts. 
In such applications, however, the ideals of design are often 
obscured by the consideration of materials and technical 
processes on the one hand, and of service or utility on the 
other. It will be worth while, therefore, for those who wish 
to bring Design into their work, whatever that is, to study 
Design in the abstract, Pure Design, so that they may know, 
before they undertake to use it, what Design is. It is the 
purpose of this book to explain what it is. 

REPRESENTATION 

12. Order, which in Pure Design is an end, becomes in 
Representation a means to an end; the end being the Truth 
of Representation. In Representation we are no longer 
dealing, as in Pure Design, with meaningless terms, or, if the 
terms have meanings, with no regard for them. In Repre- 
sentation we are putting lines and spots of paint together for 
the sake of their meanings. Design in Representation means 
Order in the composition or arrangement of meanings. What 
we aim at is the Truth of Representation in a form of expres- 
sion which will be simple, clear, reasonable, and consistent, 
as well as true. The attention must be directed to what is 
important, away from what is unimportant. Objects, people, 
and things represented must be brought out and emphasized 
or suppressed and subordinated, according to the Idea or 
Truth which the artist wishes to express. The irrelevant 
must be eliminated. The inconsistent and the incongruous 
must be avoided. That is what I mean by Design in Repre- 
sentation, the knowledge of Nature and Life presented in 
a systematic, logical, and orderly way. 

REPRESENTATION IN FORMS OF DESIGN 

13. It sometimes happens that we have the Truth of Re- 
presentation in a form of Pure Design or Pure Design com- 



8 INTRODUCTION 

bined with Representation. In Poetry we have the meaning 
of the words in the measures of the verse. So in Represen- 
tation it is sometimes possible to achieve the Truth in forms 
of Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm. In such cases the appeal 
is simultaneously to the love of Knowledge and to the sense 
of Order and of Beauty, so that we have an aesthetic pleasure 
in the statement of the Truth. 

In this book I shall explain what I mean by Drawing and 
Painting in Pure Design. Later, I hope to write another 
book on Design in Representation. 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN 
PURE DESIGN 

POSITIONS 

DEFINITION OF POSITIONS 

14. TAKE a pencil and a piece of paper. With the pencil, 
on the paper, mark a dot or point. 



* Fig. 3 

By this dot (A) three ideas are expressed: an idea of Tone, 
the tone of lead in the pencil; an idea of Measure, the extent 
of the space covered by the dot; and an idea of Shape, the 
character given to the dot by its outline or contour. The dot 
is so small that its tone, its measure, and its shape will not be 
seriously considered. There is another idea, however, which 
is expressed by the dot or point, an idea of Position. That 
is its proper meaning or signification. There is presumably 
a reason for giving the dot one position rather than another. 

POSITIONS DETERMINED BY DIRECTIONS AND DISTANCES 

15. Put another dot (B) on your paper, not far from dot 
"A." 



^. B 



Fig. 4 



Up IT 60 



IT" 




UpR T 30 



DownlT45 



Down 

Fig. 5 



The method of describing and defining different directions 
from any point, as a center, is clearly explained by this 
diagram. 



10 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

We have now a relation of two positions, the relation of 
position "A" to position "B." The relation is one of Direc- 
tions and of Distances. Proceeding from "A" in a certain 
direction to a certain distance we reach "B." Proceeding 
from "B" in a certain direction and to a certain distance we 
reach "A." Every position means two things; a direction and 
a distance taken from some point which may be described as 
the premise-point. 

DIRECTIONS 

16. Directions may be referred either to the Horizontal 
or to the Vertical. Referring them to the horizontal, we 
say of a certain direction, that it is up-to-the-left, or up-to- 
the-right, or down-to-the-left, or down-to-the-right, a certain 
number of degrees. It may be thirty (30), it may be forty- 
five (45), it may be sixty (60), any number of degrees up 
to ninety (90), in which case we say simply that the direc- 
tion is up or down. Directions on the horizontal may be 
described by the terms, to the right or to the left. 



POSITIONS 11 



DISTANCES 

17. The definition of Distances in any direction is well 
understood. In defining position "B," in Fig. 4, we say that 
it is, in a direction from "A," the premise-point, down-to- 
the-right forty-five degrees (45), that it is at a distance from 
"A" of one inch. Distances are always taken from premise- 
points. 

POSITIONS DETEEMINED BY TRIANGULATIONS 

18. If we mark a third dot, "C," on our paper and wish to 
define its position, we may give the direction and the distance 
from "A," or from "B," or, if we prefer, we may follow the 
principle of Triangulation and give two directions, one from 
"A" and the other from "B." No distances need be given 
in that case. The position of "C" will be found at the inter- 
section of the two directions. 



Fig. 6 

The principle of Triangulation is illustrated in the above 
diagram. 



INTERVALS 



19. We shall have occasion to speak not only of Distances, 
but of Intervals. They may be defined as intermediate spaces. 
The spaces between the points "A" and "B," "A" and "C," 
"B" and "C," in Fig. 6, are Intervals. 



118 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



SCALE IN RELATIONS OF POSITIONS 

20. Given any relation of positions, the scale may be 
changed by changing the intervals, provided we make no 
change of directions. That is well understood. 

Before proceeding to the considerations which follow, I 
must ask the reader to refer to the definitions of Harmony, 
Balance, and Rhythm which I have given in the Introduction. 

THE ORDER OF HARMONY 

IN POSITIONS: DIRECTIONS, DISTANCES, INTERVALS 

21. All Positions lying in the same direction and at the same 
distance from a given point, taken as a premise-point, are one. 
There is no such thing, therefore, as a Harmony of Positions. 
Positions in Harmony are identical positions. Two or more 
positions may, however, lie in the same direction from or at 
the same distance from a given point taken as a premise-point. 
In that case, the two or more positions, having a direction or 
a distance in common, are, to that extent, in harmony. 

22. What do we mean by Harmony of Directions ? 



Fig. 7 

This is an example of Direction-Harmony. All the points or 
positions lie in one and the same direction from the premise- 
point "A." The distances from " A " vary. There is no Har- 
mony of Intervals. 

Directions being defined by angles of divergence, we may 
have a Harmony of Directions in the repetition of similar 
angles of divergence: in other words, when a certain change 
of direction is repeated. 



POSITIONS 13 



Pig. 8 



In this case the angles of divergence are equal. There is a 
Harmony, not only in the repetition of a certain angle, but in 
the correspondence of the intervals. 



Fig. 9 

This is an example of Harmony produced by the repetition of 
a certain alternation of directions. 



Fig. 10 

In this case we have Harmony in the repetition of a certain 
relation of directions (angles of divergence). In these cases, 
Fig. 9 and Fig. 10, there is Harmony also, in the repetition 
of a certain relation of intervals. 

23. Two or more positions may lie at the same distance 
from a given point taken as a premise-point. In that case 
the positions, having a certain distance in common, are, to 
that extent, in Harmony. 






14 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



A 



Fig. 11 

This is an example of Distance-Harmony. All the points are 
equally distant from the premise-point "A." The directions 
vary. 

We may have Distance-Harmony, also, in the repetition of 
a certain relation of distances. 



A 



Pig. 12 

This is an illustration of what I have just described. The 
Harmony is of a certain relation of distances repeated. 

24. Intervals, that is to say intermediate spaces, are in 
Harmony when they have the same measure. 



Fig. 13 

In this case we have, not only a Harmony of Direction, as in 
Fig. 7, but also a Harmony of Intervals. 



POSITIONS 15 



Pig. 14 

In this case the points are in a group and we have, as in 
Fig. 11, a Harmony of Distances from the premise-point "A." 
We have also a Harmony of Intervals, the distances be- 
tween adjacent points being equal. We have a Harmony of 
Intervals, not only when the intervals are equal, but when 
a certain relation of intervals is repeated. 



Fig. 15 

The repetition of the ratio one-to-three in these intervals is 
distinctly appreciable. In the repetition we have Harmony, 
though we have no Harmony in the terms of the ratio itself, 
that is to say, no Harmony that is appreciable in the sense 
of vision. The fact that one and three are both multiples of 
one means that one and three have something in common, 
but inasmuch as the common divisor, one, cannot be visually 
appreciated, as such (I feel sure that it cannot), it has no 
interest or value in Pure Design. 



Fig. 16 

The relation of intervals is, in this case, the relation of three- 
one-five. We have Harmony in the repetition of this rela- 
tion of intervals though there is no Harmony in the relation 
itself, which is repeated. 



16 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 17 

In this case, also, we have Interval-Harmony, but as the 
intervals in the vertical and horizontal directions are shorter 
than the intervals in the diagonal directions, the Harmony 
is that of a relation of intervals repeated. 

25. In moving from point to point in any series of points, 
it will be found easier to follow the series when the intervals 
are short than when they are long. In Fig. 17 it is easier to 
follow the vertical or horizontal series than it is to follow a 
diagonal series, because in the vertical and horizontal direc- 
tions the intervals are shorter. 



Fig. 18 



In this case it is easier to move up or down on the vertical 
than in any other directions, because the short intervals lie 
on the vertical. The horizontal intervals are longer, the 
diagonal intervals longer still. 



POSITIONS 17 



Fig. 19 

In this case the series which lies on the diagonal up-left- 
down-right is the more easily followed. It is possible in this 
way, by means of shorter intervals, to keep the eye on certain 
lines. The applications of this principle are very interesting. 

26. In each position, as indicated by a point in these 
arrangements, may be placed a composition of dots, lines, 
outlines, or areas. The dots indicate positions in which 
any of the possibilities of design may be developed. They 
are points from which all things may emerge and become 
visible. 

THE ORDER OF BALANCE 

IN POSITIONS: DIRECTIONS, DISTANCES, AND INTERVALS 

27. Directions balance when they are opposite. 

A 

i T r 



Fig. 20 

The opposite directions, right and left, balance on the point 
from which they are taken. 

28. Equal distances in opposite directions balance on the 
point from which the directions are taken. 



18 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



A 

- - 



B 



Fig. 21 



The equal distances AB and AC, taken in the directions AB 
and AC respectively, balance on the point "A" from which 
the directions are taken. 

29. Two directions balance when, taken from any point, 
they diverge at equal angles from any axis, vertical, horizon- 
tal, or diagonal. 




The directions AB and AC balance on the vertical axis AD 
from which they diverge equally, that is to say, at equal 
angles. 

30. Equal distances balance in directions which diverge 
equally from a given axis. 



POSITIONS 



19 




The equal distances AB and AC balance in the directions 
AB and AC which diverge equally from the axis AD, making 
the equal angles CAD and DAB. Both directions and dis- 
tances balance on the vertical axis AD. 

31. The positions B and C in Fig. 23, depending on balan- 
cing directions and distances, balance on the same axis. We 
should feel this balance of the positions A and B on the 
vertical axis even without any indication of the axis. We 
have so definite an image of the vertical axis that when it is 
not drawn we imagine it. 

B 



Fig. 24 

In this case the two positions C and B cannot be said to 
balance, because there is no suggestion, no indication, and 
no visual image of any axis. It is only the vertical axis which 
will be imagined when not drawn. 

32. Perfect verticality in relations of position suggests 



20 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

stability and balance. The relation of positions C-B in 
Fig. 24 is one of instability. 



Fig. 25 

These two positions are felt to balance because they lie in 
a perfectly vertical relation, which is a relation of stability. 
Horizontality in relations, of position is also a relation of 
stability. See Fig. 28, p. 21. 

33. All these considerations lead us to the definition of 
Symmetry. By Symmetry I mean opposite directions or 
inclinations, opposite and equal distances, opposite positions, 
and in those positions equal, corresponding, and opposed 
attractions on a vertical axis. Briefly, Symmetry is right 
and left balance on a vertical axis. This axis will be imagined 
when not drawn. In Symmetry we have a balance which is 
perfectly obvious and instinctively felt by everybody. All 
other forms of Balance are comparatively obscure. Some 
of them may be described as occult. 



Fig. 26 



POSITIONS 1 

In this case we have a symmetry of positions which means 
opposite directions, opposite and equal distances, and similar 
and opposite attractions in those positions. The attractions 
are black dots corresponding in tone, measure, and shape. 



Fig. 27 

In this case we have a balance of positions (directions and 
distances) and attractions in those positions, not only on the 
vertical axis but on a center. That means Symmetry regard- 
ing the vertical axis, Balance regarding the center. If we turn 
the figure, slightly, from the vertical axis, we shall still have 
Balance upon a center and axial Balance; but Symmetry, 
which depends upon the vertical axis, will be lost. 

34. The central vertical axis of the whole composition 
should predominate in symmetrical balances. 



Pig. 28 

In this case we do not feel the balance of attractions clearly 
or satisfactorily, because the vertical axis of the whole arrange- 
ment does not predominate sufficiently over the six axes 
of adjacent attractions. It is necessary, in order that sym- 
metrical balance shall be instinctively felt, that the central 
vertical axis predominate. 



22 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Fig. 29 

The central vertical axis is clearly indicated in this case. 


Fig. 30 

Here, also, the central vertical axis is clearly indicated. 

35. All relations of position (directions, distances, inter- 
vals), as indicated by dots or points, whether orderly or not, 
being inverted on the vertical axis, give us an obvious sym- 
metrical balance. 

Fig. 31 

This is a relation of positions to be inverted. 



Fig. 32 

Here the same relation is repeated, with its inversion to the 
right on a vertical axis. The result is an obvious symmetri- 
cal balance. If this inversion were made on any other than 
the vertical axis, the result would be Balance but not Sym- 
metry. The balance would still be axial, but the axis, not 
being vertical, the balance would not be symmetrical. 

36. In the case of any unsymmetrical arrangement of dots, 
the dots become equal attractions in the field of vision, pro- 
vided they are near enough together to be seen together. 
To be satisfactorily seen as a single composition or group 
they ought to lie, all of them, within a visual angle of thirty 
degrees. We may, within these limits, disregard the fact 



POSITIONS 



23 



that visual attractions lose their force as they are removed 
from the center of the field of vision. As equal attractions 
in the field of vision, the dots in any unsymmetrical arrange- 
ment may be brought into a balance by weighing the several 
attractions and indicating what I might call the center of 
equilibrium. This is best done by means of a symmetrical 
inclosure or frame. In ascertaining just where the center 
is, in any case, we depend upon visual sensitiveness or 
visual feeling, guided by an understanding of the principle of 
balance: that equal attractions, tensions or pulls, balance at 
equal distances from a given center, that unequal attractions 
balance at distances inversely proportional to them. Given 
certain attractions, to find the center, we weigh the attrac- 
tions together in the field of vision and observe the position 
of the center. In simple cases we may be able to prove or 
disprove our visual feeling by calculations and reasoning. In 
cases, however, where the attractions vary in their tones, 
measures, and shapes, and where there are qualities as well 
as quantities to be considered, calculations and reasoning 
become difficult if not impossible, and we have to depend 
upon visual sensitiveness. All balances of positions, as indi- 
cated by dots corresponding in tone, measure, and shape, 
are balances of equal attractions, and the calculation to find 
the center is a very simple one. 




Fig. 83 



Here, for example, the several attractions, corresponding and 



24 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



equal, lie well within the field of vision. The method fol- 
lowed to balance them is that which I have just described. 
The center of equilibrium was found and then indicated by a 
symmetrical framing. Move the frame up or down, right or 
left, and the center of the frame and the center of the attrac- 
tions within it will no longer coincide, and the balance will be 
lost. We might say of this arrangement that it is a Harmony 
of Positions due to the coincidence of two centers, the center 
of the attractions and the center of the framing. 

37. It will be observed that the force of the symmetrical 
inclosure should be sufficient to overpower any suggestion of 
movement which may lie in the attractions inclosed by it. 



Fig. 34 

In this case the dots and the inclosure are about equally 
attractive. 



Fig. 85 



POSITIONS 25 

In this case the force of attractions in the symmetrical out- 
line is sufficient to overpower any suggestion of instability and 
movement which may lie in the attractions inclosed by it. 

There is another form of Balance, the Balance of Inclina- 
tions, but I will defer its consideration until I can illustrate 
the idea by lines. 

THE ORDER OF RHYTHM 

IN POSITIONS: DIRECTIONS, DISTANCES, INTERVALS 

38. In any unsymmetrical relation of positions (directions, 
distances, intervals), in which the balance-center is not clearly 
and sufficiently indicated, there is a suggestion of movement. 
The eye, not being held by any balance, readily follows this 
suggestion. 



Fig.S6 

In this case we feel that the group of dots is unbalanced in 
character and unstable in its position or attitude. It is easy, 
inevitable indeed, to imagine the group falling away to the 
right. This is due, no doubt, to the visual habit of imagining 
a base-line when it is not drawn. Our judgments are con- 
stantly made with reference to the imagined standards of 
verticality and horizontality. We seem to be provided with a 
plumb-line and a level without being conscious of the fact. 



26 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Pig. 37 

In this case there is a suggestion of falling down to the left 
due to the feeling of instability. A symmetrical framing 
holding the eye at the center of equilibrium would prevent the 
feeling of movement, provided the framing were sufficiently 
strong in its attractions. In the examples I have given (Fig. 36 
and Fig. 37) we have movement, but no Rhythm. 

39. There is another type of movement which we must 
consider, the type of movement which is caused by a gradual 
crowding together of attractions. 



Fig. 38 

There is nothing in this series of dots but the harmony of 
corresponding attractions and intervals repeated in a har- 
mony of direction. If, instead of the repetition of equal 
intervals, we had a regular progression of intervals, either 
arithmetical or geometrical, we should feel a movement in 
the direction of diminishing intervals. 



Fig. 39 

In the above example the changes of interval are those of an 
arithmetical progression. 



Fig. 40 



POSITIONS 



27 



In Fig. 40 the changes of interval are those of a geometrical 
progression. The movement to the left through these se- 
quences is, no doubt, somewhat checked or prevented by the 
habit of reading to the right. 




. 



The angle FAB is the angle of vision within which the 
sequence is observed. At the end F of the sequence there is 
a greater number of attractions in a given angle of vision 
than at the end B, so the eye is drawn towards the left. 
The pull on the eye is greater at the end F because of the 
greater number and the crowding together of attractions. In 
the examples just given (Figs. 39, 40), we have not only move- 
ments in certain directions, but movements in regular and 
marked measures. The movements are, therefore, rhythmi- 
cal, according to the definition I have given of Rhythm. 

40. It is evident that any relation of positions, balanced 
>r unbalanced, may be substituted for the single dots or points 

in the figures just given. Such substitutions have the follow- 
ing possibilities. 

41. First. When the points lie in a series, at equal intervals, 
the substitution of a symmetrical group of positions at each 
point gives no Rhythm, only Harmony. 



8 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 42 

There is no movement in this series of repetitions. There is 
consequently no Rhythm. Disregarding the habit of reading 
to the right, which induces the eye to move in that direction, 
it is as easy to move toward the left as toward the right. It 
requires more than repetitions at equal intervals to produce 
the feeling of Rhythm. There must be movement, and the 
movement must have a definite direction. 

42. Second. The substitution at each point of a symmetrical 
group at equal intervals, as before, but with a progressive 
change of scale, will give us Rhythm. The movement will be 
due to the gradual crowding together of attractions at one 
end of the series. 



5 

. 



Fig. 43 

In this case we have the repetition of a symmetrical rela- 
tion of positions at equal intervals with a gradation of scale 
in the repetitions. The result is a Rhythm, in which the 
movement is from left to right, owing to the greater crowding 
together of attractions at the right end of the series. The 
feeling of Rhythm is no doubt somewhat enhanced by our 
habit of reading to the right, which facilitates the movement 
of the eye in that direction. 

43. Third. The substitution of an unstable group at each 
point of the sequence, the repetitions being at equal intervals, 



POSITIONS 29 

gives us a Rhythm, due simply to the movement of the group 
itself, which is unstable. 

. * * 

.- * * ' ' 



Fig. 44 

Taking the relation of positions given in Fig. 36 and repeating 
it at equal intervals, it will be observed that the falling-to- 
the-right movement, which is the result of instability, is con- 
veyed to the whole series of repetitions. To make it perfectly 
clear that the movement of this Rhythm is due to the sug- 
gestion of movement in the relation of positions which is 
repeated, I will ask the reader to compare it with the repeti- 
tion of a symmetrical group in Fig. 42. There is no move- 
ment in that case, therefore no Rhythm. 

44. Fourth. The movement in Fig. 44 may be increased 
by a diminution of scale and consequent crowding together 
of the dots, provided the movement of the groups and the 
crowding together have the same direction. 



Fig. 45 

In this case, as I have said, the movement of Fig. 44 is 
enforced by the presence of another element of movement, 
that of a gradation of scale and consequent crowding together 
in the groups. The two movements have the same direction. 
The movement of the crowding is not so strong as that which 
is caused by the instability of the group itself. 



30 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

45. Fifth. A symmetrical relation of positions, being 
repeated in a series with gradually diminishing intervals 
between the repeats, will give us a feeling of rhythmic move- 
ment. It will be due to a gradual increase in the number 
of attractions as the eye passes from one angle of vision to 
another. See Fig. 41. The Rhythm will, no doubt, be some- 
what retarded by the sense of successive axes of symmetry. 



Fig. 46 

In this case a symmetrical group is repeated in a progression 
of measures. The movement is toward the greater number 
of attractions at the right end of the series. This increase in 
the number of attractions is due simply to diminishing inter- 
vals in that direction. The eye moves through a series of 
angles toward the angle which contains the greatest number 
of attractions. The reader can hardly fail to feel the succes- 
sive axes of symmetry as a retarding element in this Rhythm. 

46. Sixth. Symmetrical relations of position may be 
repeated in progressions of scale and of intervals. In that 
case we get two movements, one caused by a gradual increase 
in the number of attractions in successive angles of vision, 
the other being due to a gradual crowding together and con- 
vergence of attractions in the same series of angles. 



Fig. 47 

Comparing this Rhythm with the Rhythm of Fig. 43, the 



POSITIONS 81 

reader will appreciate the force of a diminution of scale in 
connection with a diminution of intervals. 

47. Seventh. Unstable groups may be repeated in progres- 
sions of intervals, in which case the movement in the group 
is conveyed to the whole series, in which there will be, also, 
the movement of a gradual increase of attractions from one 
angle of vision to another. In all such cases contrary motion 
should be avoided if the object is Rhythm. The several move- 
ments should have a harmony of direction. 














Fig. 48 

In this case the movement in the group is felt throughout 
the series, and the force of the movement is enhanced by 
the force of a gradual increase of attractions from one visual 
angle to another, in the same direction, to the right. By 
reversing the direction of increasing attractions and so get- 
ting the two movements into contrary motion, the feeling of 
rhythm would be much diminished. Such contrary motions 
are unsatisfactory unless Balance can be achieved. In that 
case all sense of movement and of rhythm disappears. 

48. Eighth. Unstable groups may be repeated, not only 
in a gradation of intervals, but in a gradation of scale, in 
which case we have a combination of three causes of move- 
ment : lack of stability in the group repeated, a gradual 
increase in the number of attractions in the sequence of 
visual angles, and a crowding or convergence of the attrac- 
tions. Rhythms of this type will not be satisfactory unless the 
three movements have the same direction. 



32 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



. 

Fig. 49 

Here we have the repetition of an unstable group of attrac- 
tions in a progression of scale and also of intervals. The 
arrangement gives us three elements of movement, all in the 
same direction. 

49. Two or even more of such rhythms as I have described 
may be combined in one compound rhythm, in which the 
eye will follow two or more distinct movements at the same 
time. It is important in all compound rhythms that there 
should be no opposition or conflict of movements, unless of 
course the object is to achieve a balance of contrary move- 
ments. Corresponding rhythms in contrary motion balance 
one another. If one of the movements is to the right, the 
other to the left, the balance will be symmetrical. 

ATTITUDES 

RELATIONS OF POSITION IN DIFFERENT ATTITUDES 

50. Given any relation of positions (directions, distances, 
intervals), it may be turned upon a center and so made to take 
an indefinite number and variety of attitudes. It may be 
inverted and the inversion may be turned upon a center, pro- 
ducing another series of attitudes. Except in cases of axial 
balance, the attitudes of the second series will be different 
from those of the first. 



. 

: 





Fig. 60 



POSITIONS 83 

In this case the relation of positions being turned upon a 
center changes its attitude, while the positions within the 
group remain relatively unchanged. There is no change of 
shape. 



. 



- . 



Fig. 51 

In this case the same group has been inverted, and a second 
series of attitudes is shown, differing from the first series. 









Fig. 52 

In this case, however, which is a case of axial balance, the 
inversion of the group and the turning of the inversion on a 
center gives no additional attitudes. 

51. Among all possible attitudes there are four which are 
principal or fundamental, which we may distinguish as fol- 
lows : 



34 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



IV 



II 



Fig. 53 

These principal attitudes are: First, I, the original attitude, 
whatever it is; second, II, the single inversion of that attitude, 
to the right on a vertical axis; third, III, the double inversion 
of the original attitude, first to the right then down; and, 
fourth, IV, the single inversion of the original position, down 
across the horizontal axis. 

THE ORDER OF HARMONY IN ATTITUDES 

52. The repetition of any relation of positions without 
change of attitude gives us Harmony of Attitudes. 



Fig. 54 

In this case we have not only a Harmony in the repetition of 
a certain relation of positions and of intervals, but a Harmony 
of Attitudes. We have, in the relation of positions repeated, 
a certain shape. In the repetition of the shape we have 
Shape-Harmony. In the repetition of the shape in a certain 
attitude we have a Harmony of Attitudes. 



POSITIONS 



35 



Fig. 55 

In this case we have lost the Harmony of Attitudes which 
we had in Fig. 54, but not the Harmony of a certain shape 
repeated. 

53. The possibilities of Harmony in the repetition of any 
relation of positions in the same attitude has been discussed. 
A Harmony of Attitudes will occur, also, in the repetition of 
any relation of. attitudes. 



Fig. 56 

Here we have Harmony in the repetition of a relation of two 
attitudes of a certain group of positions. The combination of 
the two attitudes gives us another group of positions and the 
Harmony lies in the repetition of this group. 

THE ORDER OF BALANCE IN ATTITUDES 

54. It is to be observed that single inversions in any direc- 
tion, for example the relation of attitudes I and II, II and III, 
III and IV, IV and I, in Fig. 53, shows an opposition and 
Balance of Attitudes upon the axis of inversion. The relation 
of positions I and II and III and IV, the relation of the two 
groups on the left to the two groups on the right, illustrates 
the idea of Symmetry of Attitudes, the axis of balance being 
vertical. By Symmetry I mean, in all cases, right and left 



36 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

balance on a vertical axis. All double inversions, the relation 
of positions I and III, and II and IV, in Fig. 53, are Attitude- 
Balances, not on axes, but on centers. The balance of these 
double inversions is not symmetrical in the sense in which I 
use the word symmetry, nor is it axial. It is central. 

THE ORDER OF RHYTHM IN ATTITUDES 

55. When movement is suggested by any series of attitudes 
and the movement is regulated by equal or regularly progres- 
sive intervals, we have a Rhythm of Attitudes. 



Fig. 57 

In this case the changes of attitude suggest a falling move- 
ment to the right and down. In the regular progression of 
this movement through marked intervals we have the effect 
of Rhythm, in spite of the fact that the relation of posi- 
tions repeated has axial balance. The intervals in this case 
correspond, producing Interval-Harmony. The force of this 
Rhythm might be increased if the relation of positions re- 
peated suggested a movement in the same direction. We 
should have Rhythm, of course, in the repetition of any such 
unstable attitude-rhythms at equal or lawfully varying inter- 
vals. 



LINES 

DEFINITION OF LINES 

56. TAKING any dot and drawing it out in any direc- 
tion, or in a series or sequence of directions, it becomes 
a line. The line may be drawn in any tone, in any value, 
color or color-intensity. In order that the line may be seen, 
the tone of it must differ from the ground-tone upon which 
it is drawn. The line being distinctly visible, the question of 
tone need not be raised at this point of our discussion. We 
will study the line, first, as a line, not as an effect of light. 

The line may be drawn long or short, broad or narrow. As 
the line increases in breadth, however, it becomes an area. 
We will disregard for the present all consideration of width- 
measures in the line and confine our attention to the possi- 
ble changes of direction in it, and to possible changes in its 
length. 

We can draw the line in one direction from beginning to 
end, in which case it will be straight. If, in drawing the line, 
we change its direction, we can do this abruptly, in which 
case the line becomes angular, or we can do it gradually, in 
which case it becomes curved. Lines may be straight, angular, 
or curved. They may have two of these characteristics or all 
three of them. The shapes of lines are of infinite variety. 

CHANGES OF DIRECTION IN LINES 

Angles 

57. Regarding the line which is drawn as a way or path 
upon which we move and proceed, we must decide, if we 
change our direction, whether we will turn to the right or to 
the left, and whether we will turn abruptly or gradually. If 
we change our direction abruptly we must decide how much 



88 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



of a change of direction we will make. Is it to be a turn of 30 
or 60 or 90 or 135 ? How much of a turn shall it be ? 



LT60 




IT30* 



RMS" 



\ 



L FT f3$\ 



R T 90 



R T I50 



Fig. 68 



The above illustrations are easy to understand and require 
no explanation. An abrupt change of 180 means, of course, 
returning upon the line just drawn. 

Curves 

58. In turning, not abruptly but gradually, changing the 
direction at every point, that is to say in making a curve, the 
question is, how much of a turn to make in a given distance, 
through how many degrees of the circle to turn in one inch 
(1"), in half an inch ("), in two inches (2"). In estimating 
the relation of arcs, as distances, to angles of curvature, the 
angles of the arcs, the reader will find it convenient to refer 
to what I may call an Arc-Meter. The principle of this 
meter is shown in the following diagram : 



LINES 



89 




Pig. 59 

If we wish to turn 30 in ", we take the angle of 30 and look 
within it for an arc of \" . The arc of the right length and the 
right angle being found, it can be drawn free-hand or me- 
chanically, by tracing or by the dividers. Using this meter, 
we are able to draw any curve or combination of curves, 
approximately; and we are able to describe and define a line, 
in its curvatures, so accurately that it can be produced accord- 
ing to the definition. Owing, however, to the difficulty of 
measuring the length of circular arcs accurately, we may find 
it simpler to define the circular arc by the length of its radius 
and the angle through which the radius passes when the arc is 
drawn. 




Kg. 60 



Here, for example, is a certain circular arc. It is perhaps best 



40 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

defined and described as the arc of a half inch radius and an 
angle of ninety degrees, or in writing, more briefly, rad. " 90. 
Regarding every curved line either as a circular arc or made 
up of a series of circular arcs, the curve may be defined and 
described by naming the arc or arcs of which it is composed, 
in the order in which they are to be drawn, and the attitude 
of the curve may be determined by starting from a certain 
tangent drawn in a certain direction. The direction of the 
tangent being given, the first arc takes the direction of the 
tangent, turning to the right of it or to the left. 




Fig. 61 

Here is a curve which is composed of four circular arcs to 
be drawn in the following order: 

Tangent up right 45, arc right radius 1" 60, arc left 
radius J" 90, arc right radius f " 180. 

Two arcs will often come together at an angle. The defini- 
tion of the angle must be given in that case. It is, of course, 
the angle made by tangents of the arcs. Describing the first 
arc and the direction (right or left so many degrees) which 
the tangent of the second arc takes from the tangent of the 
first arc ; then describing the second arc and stating whether 
it turns from its tangent to the right or to the left, we shall 
be able to describe, not only our curves, but any angles which 
may occur in them. 



LINES 41 




Fig. 62 

Here is a curve which, so far as the arcs are concerned, of 
which it is composed, resembles the curve of Fig. 61; but 
in this case the third arc makes an angle with the second. 
That angle has to be defined. Drawing the tangents, it appears 
to be a right angle. The definition of the line given in Fig. 
62 will read as follows : - 

Tangent down right 45, arc left radius 1" 60, arc right 
radius f" 90, tangent left 90, arc left I" 180. 

59. In this way, regarding all curves as circular arcs or 
composed of circular arcs, we shall be able to define any line 
we see, or any line which we wish to produce, so far as changes 
of direction are concerned. For the purposes of this discus- 
sion, I shall consider all curves as composed of circular arcs. 

There are many curves, of course, which are not circular 
in character, nor composed, strictly speaking, of circular arcs. 
The Spirals are in no part circular. Elliptical curves are in 
no part circular. All curves may, nevertheless, be approxi- 
mately drawn as compositions of circular arcs. The approxi- 
mation to curves which are not circular may be easily carried 
beyond any power of discrimination which we have in the 
sense of vision. The method of curve-definition, which I 
have described, though it may not be strictly mathematical. 



42 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

will be found satisfactory for all purposes of Pure Design. 
It is very important that we should be able to analyze our 
lines upon a single general principle; to discover whether 
they are illustrations of Order. We must know whether any 
given line, being orderly, is orderly in the sense of Harmony, 
Balance, or Rhythm. It is equally important, if we wish to 
produce an orderly as distinguished from a disorderly line, 
that we should have some general principle to follow in doing 
it, that we should be able to produce forms of Harmony or 
Balance or Rhythm in a line, if we wish to do so. 

DIFFERENCES OF SCALE IN LINES 

60. Having drawn a line of a certain shape, either straight 
or angular or curved, or partly angular, partly curved, we 
may change the measure of the line, in its length, without 
changing its shape. That is to say, we may draw the line 
longer or shorter, keeping all changes of direction, such as 
they are, in the same positions, relatively. In that way the 
same shape may be drawn larger or smaller. That is what we 
mean when we speak of a change of scale or of measure 
which is not a change of shape. 

DIFFERENCES OF ATTRACTION IN LINES 

61. A line attracts attention in the measure of the tone- 
contrast which it makes with the ground-tone upon which 
it is drawn. It attracts attention, also, according to its length, 
which is an extension of the tone-contrast. It attracts more 
attention the longer it is, provided it lies, all of it, well within 
the field of vision. It attracts attention also in the measure 
of its concentration. 



a b 

Fig. 63 

Line "a" would attract less attention than it does if the tone- 



LINES 43 

contrast, black on a ground of white paper, were diminished, 
if the line were gray, not black. In line "b" there is twice 
the extension of tone-contrast there is in "a." For that reason 
"b" is more attractive. If, however, "a" were black and "b" 
were gray, "a" might be more attractive than "b," because 
of the greater tone-contrast. 



Fig. 64 

In this illustration the curved line is more attractive than 
the straight line because it is more concentrated, therefore 
more definite. The extent of tone-contrast is the same, the 
lines being of the same length. 




Fig. 65 

In this line there is no doubt as to the greater attraction of the 
twisted end, on account of the greater concentration it exhibits. 
The extent of tone-contrast is the same at both ends. The 
force of attraction in the twisted end of the line would be 
diminished if the twisted end were made gray instead of black. 
The pull of concentration at one end might, conceivably, be 
perfectly neutralized by the pull of a greater tone-contrast at 
the other. 



o 



Fig. 66 



In "b" we have a greater extension of tone-contrast in a given 
space. The space becomes more attractive in consequence. 



44 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

This might not be the case, however, if the greater extension 
of tone-contrast in one case were neutralized by an increase of 
tone-contrast in the other. 

THE ORDER OF HARMONY IN LINES 

62. Harmony of Direction means no change of direction. 



Fig. 67 

In this case we have a Harmony of Direction in the line, 
because it does not change its direction. 

63. Harmony of Angles. We may have Harmony in the 
repetition of a certain relation of directions, as in an angle. 



Fig. 68 



The angle up 45 and down 45 is here repeated seven times. 




Fig. 69 



In this case we have a great many angles in the line, but they 
are all right angles, so we have a Harmony of Angles. 




Fig. 70 



LINES 45 

In this case we have Harmony in the repetition of a certain 
relation of angles, that is to say, in the repetition of a certain 
form of angularity. 

64. Equality of lengths or measures between the angles of 
a line means a Harmony of Measures. 




Fig. 71 

In this case, for example, we have no Harmony of Angles, 
but a Harmony of Measures in the legs of the angles, as they 
are called. 

65. We have a Harmony of Curvature in a line when it is 
composed wholly of arcs of the same radius and the same 
angle. 




Fig. 72 

This is a case of Harmony of Curvature. There is no change 
of direction here, in the sequence of corresponding arcs. 




Fig. 7S 

Here, again, we have a Harmony of Curvature. In this case, 
however, there is a regular alternation of directions in the 



46 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

sequence of corresponding arcs. In this regular alternation, 
which is the repetition of a certain relation of directions, there 
is a Harmony of Directions. 




Fig. 74 

In this case the changes of direction are abrupt (angular) 
as well as gradual. There is no regular alternation, but the 
harmony of corresponding arcs repeated will be appreciated, 
nevertheless. 

66. Arcs produced by the same radius are in harmony to 
that extent, having the radius in common. 




Fig. 75 

This is an example of a harmony of arcs produced by radii 
of the same length. The arcs vary in length. 

67. Arcs of the same angle-measure produced by different 
radii are in Harmony to the extent that they have an angle- 
measure in common. 



LINES 



47 




Fig. 76 



This is an example. 



Arcs having the same length but varying in both radius and 
angle may be felt to be in Measure-Harmony. It is doubtful, 
however, whether lines of the same length but of very different 
curvatures will be felt to correspond. If the correspondence 
of lengths is not felt, visually, it has no interest or value from 
the point of view of Pure Design. 

68. Any line may be continued in a repetition or repeti- 
tions of its shape, whatever the shape is, producing what I 
call a Linear Progression. In the repetitions we have Shape- 
Harmony. 




Fig. 77 

This is an example of Linear Progression. The character of 
the progression is determined by the shape-motive which is 
repeated in it. 

69. The repetition of a certain shape-motive in a line is 
not, necessarily, a repetition in the same measure or scale. 
A repetition of the same shape in the same measure means 
Measure and Shape-Harmony in the progression. A repetition 
of the same shape in different measures means Shape- 
Harmony without Measure-Harmony. 



48 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Pig. 78 

Here we have the repetition of a certain shape in a line, in a 
progression of measures. That gives us Shape-Harmony 
and a Harmony of Proportions, without Measure-Harmony. 

70. In the repetition of a certain shape-motive in the line, 
the line may change its direction abruptly or gradually, con- 
tinuously or alternately, producing a Linear Progression with 
changes of direction. 







Fig. 79 



LINES 



In Fig. 79 there is a certain change of direction as we pass 
from one repetition to the next. In the repetition of the same 
change of direction, of the same angle of divergence, we have 
Harmony. If the angles of divergence varied we should have 
no such Harmony, though we might have Harmony in the 
repetition of a certain relation of divergences. Any repetition 
of a certain change or changes of direction in a linear pro- 
gression gives a Harmony of Directions in the progression. 



-Ol > 




Fig. 80 



In this case there is a regular alternation of directions in the 
repeats. The repeats are drawn first to the right, then up, 
and the relation of these two directions is then repeated. 

71. By inverting the motive of any progression, in single 
or in double inversion, and repeating the motive together 
with its inversion, we are able to vary the character of the 
progression indefinitely. 




Fig. 81 



In this case we have a single inversion of the motive and a 



50 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



repetition of the motive with its inversion. Compare this pro- 
gression with the one in Fig. 77, where the same motive is 
repeated without inversion. 




Kg. 82 

Here we have the same motive with a double inversion, the 
motive with its double inversion being repeated. The inver- 
sion gives us Shape-Harmony without Harmony of Attitudes. 
We have Harmony, however, in a repetition of the relation 
of two attitudes. These double inversions are more inter- 
esting from the point of view of Balance than of Harmony. 

THE ORDER OF BALANCE IN LINES 

72. We have Balance in a line when one half of it is the 
single or double inversion of the other half; that is, when 
there is an equal opposition and consequent equilibrium of 
attractions in the line. When the axis of the inversion is 
vertical the balance is symmetrical. 



Fig. 83 

There is Balance in this line because half of it is the single 
inversion of the other half. The balance is symmetrical 
because the axis is vertical. The balance, although symmetri- 
cal, is not likely to be appreciated, however, because the eye 
is sure to move along a line upon which there is no better 
reason for not moving than is found in slight terminal con- 
trasts. The eye is not held at the center when there is nothing 
to hold the eye on the center. Mark the center in any way 
and the eye will go to it at once. A mark or accent may be 
put at the center, or accents, corresponding and equal, may 



LINES 51 

be put at equal distances from the center in opposite direc- 
tions. The eye will then be held at the center by the force 
of equal and opposite attractions. 



Fig. 84 

In this case the eye is held at the balance-center of the line 
by a change of character at that point. 



Fig. 85 

In this case the changes of character are at equal distances, 
in opposite directions, from the center. The center is marked 
by a break. The axis being vertical, the balance is a sym- 
metrical one. 

73. The appreciation of Balance in a line depends very 
much upon the attitude in which it is drawn. 




Fig. 86 



In this case the balance in the line itself is just as good as 
it is in Fig. 85 ; but the axis of the balance being diagonal, the 
balance is less distinctly felt. The balance is unsatisfactory 
because the attitude of the line is one which suggests a falling 
down to the left. It is the instability of the line which is 
felt, more than the balance in it. 



52 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 87 

In this case of double inversion, also, we have balance. The 
balance is more distinctly felt than it was in Fig. 86. The 
attitude is one of stability. This balance is neither axial nor 
symmetrical, but central. 

74. A line balances, in a sense, when its inclinations are 
balanced. 



Fig. 88 



This line may be said to be in balance, as it has no inclina- 
tions, either to the right or to the left, to suggest instability. 
The verticals and the horizontals, being stable, look after 
themselves perfectly well. 




Fig. 89 

This line has two unbalanced inclinations to the left, It is, 
therefore, less satisfactory than the line in Fig. 88, from the 
point of view of Balance. 






LINES 




Fig. 90 

The two inclinations in this line counteract one another. One 
inclination toward the left is balanced by a corresponding 
inclination toward the right. 




Fig. 91 

In this case, also, there is no inclination toward the left which 
is not balanced by a corresponding inclination toward the 
right. 




Fig. 92 

In this line, which is composed wholly of inclinations to the 
right or left, every inclination is balanced, and the line is, 



54 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

therefore, orderly in the sense of Balance ; more so, certainly, 
than it would be if the inclinations were not counteracted. 
This is the problem of balancing the directions or inclina- 
tions of a line. 

75. A line having no balance or symmetry in itself may 
become balanced. The line may be regarded as if it were a 
series of dots close together. The line is then a relation of 
positions indicated by dots. It is a composition of attractions 
corresponding and equal. It is only necessary, then, to find 
what I have called the center of equilibrium, the balance- 
center of the attractions, and to indicate that center by a 
symmetrical inclosure. The line will then become balanced. 




Fig. 93 



Here is a line. To find the center of its attractions it may be 
considered as if it were a line of dots, like this : 



. 

r 



. : 



Kg. 94 



The principle according to which we find the balance-center 
is stated on page 23. The balance-center being found, it 
must be indicated unmistakably. This may be done by means 



LINES 



55 



of any symmetrical inclosure which will draw the eye to the 
center and hold it there. 




Fig. 95 

In this case the balance-center is indicated by a rectangular 
inclosure. This rectangle is not, however, in harmony of 
character with the line inclosed by it, which is curved. 




Fig. 96 

In this case the balance-center is indicated by a circle, which, 
being a curve, is in harmony of character with the inclosed 
line, which is also a curve. I shall call this Occult Balance 
to distinguish it from the unmistakable Balance of Symmetry 
and other comparatively obvious forms of Balance, including 
the balance of double inversions. As I have said, on page 24, 



56 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



the symmetrical framing must be sufficiently attractive to 
hold the eye steadily at the center, otherwise it does not serve 
its purpose. 

THE ORDER OF RHYTHM IN LINES 

76. The eye, not being held on a vertical axis or on a 
balance-center, readily follows any suggestion of movement. 




Fig. 97 

In this case there is no intimation of any vertical axis or 
balance-center. The figure is consequently unstable. There 
is a sense of movement to the right. This is due, not only to 
the inclinations to the right, but to the convergences in that 
direction. 





Fig. 98 



In this case the movement is unmistakably to the left. In 
such cases we have movement, but no Rhythm. 

77. Rhythm requires, not only movement, but the order of 
regular and marked intervals. 




Fig. 99 



LINES 



67 



In Fig. 99 we have a line, a linear progression, which gives 
us the feeling of movement, unmistakably. The movement, 
which in the motive itself is not rhythmical, becomes rhythmi- 
cal in its repetition at regular, and in this case equal, inter- 
vals. The intervals are marked by the repetitions. 

78. It is a question of some interest to decide how many repe- 
titions are required in a Rhythm. In answer to this question 
I should say three as a rule. A single repetition shows us only 
one interval, and we do not know whether the succeeding 
intervals are to be equal or progressive, arithmetically pro- 
gressive or geometrically progressive. The rhythm is not de- 
fined until this question is decided, as it will be by two more 
repetitions. The measures of the rhythm might take the form 
of a repeated relation of measures ; a repetition, for example, 
of the measures two, seven, four. In that case the relation of 
the three measures would have to be repeated at least three 
times before the character of the rhythm could be appreciated. 

79. Any contrariety of movement in the motive is extended, 
of course, to its repetitions. 






Fig. 100 

In this case, for example, there are convergences and, conse- 
quently, movements both up and down. This contrariety of 
movements is felt through the whole series of repetitions. 
Other things being equal, I believe the eye moves up more 
readily than down, so that convergences downward have less 
effect upon us than corresponding convergences upward. 



58 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 101 

In this case, by omitting the long vertical line I have dimin- 
ished the amount of convergence downward. In that way I 
have given predominance to the upward movement. Instead 
of altogether omitting the long vertical line, I might have 
changed its tone from black to gray. That would cause an 
approximate instead of complete disappearance. It should be 
remembered that in all these cases the habit of reading comes 
in to facilitate the movements to the right. It is easier for the 
eye to move to the right than in any other direction, other 
things being equal. The movement back to the beginning of 
another line, which is of course inevitable in reading, pro- 
duces comparatively little impression upon us, no more than 
the turning of the page. The habit of reading to the right 
happens to be our habit. The habit is not universal. 

80. Reading repetitions and alternations to the right, al- 
ways, I, for a long time, regarded such repetitions and alterna- 
tions as rhythmical, until Professor Mowll raised the question 
whether it is necessary to read all alternations to the right 
when there is nothing in the alternations themselves to sug- 
gest a movement in one direction rather than another. Why 
not read them to the left as well as to the right ? We at once 
decided that the movement in a Rhythm must be determined 
by the character of the Rhythm itself, not by any habit of 
reading, or any other habit, on our part. It was in that way 
that we came to regard repetitions and alternations as illus- 
trations of Harmony rather than of Rhythm. Rhythm conies 



LINES 59 

into the Harmony of a Repeated Relation when the relation 
is one which causes the eye to move in one direction rather 
than another, and when the movement is carried on from 
repetition to repetition, from measure to measure. 

81. The repetition of a motive at equal intervals, when there 
is no movement in the motive, gives us no feeling of Rhythm. 







Fig. 102 

In this case, for example, we have a repetition in the line of a 
certain symmetrical shape. As there is no movement in the 
shape repeated, there is no Rhythm in the repetition. There 
is nothing to draw the eye in one direction rather than an- 
other. The attractions at one end of the line correspond with 
the attractions at the other. 

82. The feeling of Rhythm may be induced by a regular 
diminution of measure or scale in the repetitions of the 
motive and in the intervals in which the repetitions take place. 





Fig. 103 

In this case the shape repeated is still symmetrical, but it is 
repeated with a gradual diminution of scale and of intervals, 
by which we are given a feeling of rhythmic movement. 
The change of scale and of intervals, to induce a sense of 
rhythmic motion, must be regular. To be regular the change 
must be in the terms of one or the other of the regular pro- 
gressions; the arithmetical progression, which proceeds by 



60 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

a certain addition, or the geometrical, which proceeds by a 
certain multiplication. The question may arise in this case 
(Fig. 103) whether the movement of the Rhythm is to the right 
or to the left. I feel, myself, that the movement is to the right. 
In diminishing the scale of the motive and of the intervals we 
have, hardly at all, diminished the extent of the tone-contrast 
in a given angle of vision. See Fig. 41, p. 27, showing the 
increase of attractions from one visual angle to another. At 
the same time we come at the right end of the progression 
to two or more repetitions in the space of one. We have, 
therefore, established the attraction of a crowding together 
at the right end of the series. See the passage (p. 43) on the 
attractiveness of a line. The force of the crowding together 
of attractions is, I feel, sufficient to cause a movement to 
the right. It must be remembered, however, that the greater 
facility of reading to the right is added here to the pull of a 
greater crowding together of attractions in the same direction, 
so the movement of the Rhythm in that direction may not 
be very strong after all. If the direction of any Rhythm is 
doubtful, the Rhythm itself is doubtful. 

83. The feeling of Rhythm may be induced, as I have said, 
by a gradual increase of the number of attractions from 
measure to measure, an increase of the extent of tone-contrast. 




Fnl (Tr 




Fig. 104 



Increasing the extent of tone-contrast and the number of 
attractions in the measures of the Rhythm in Fig. 103, we are 
able to force the eye to follow the series in the direction con- 
trary to the habit of reading, that is to say from right to left. 
A decrease in the forces of attraction in connection with a 
decrease of scale is familiar to us all in the phenomena of 



LINES 



61 



perspective. The gradual disappearance of objects in aerial 
perspective does away with the attraction of a greater crowd- 
ing together of objects in the distance. 




Fig. 105 

In this case the diminution of scale has been given up and 
there is no longer any crowding together. There is no chance 
of this rhythm being read from left to right except by an 
effort of the will. The increase of attractions toward the left is 
much more than sufficient to counteract the habit of reading. 

84. The force of a gradual coming together of attractions, 
inducing movement in the direction of such coming together, 
is noticeable in spiral shapes. 




Fig. 106 

In this case we have a series of straight lines with a constant 
and equal change of direction to the right, combined with a 
regular diminution of measures in the length of the lines, this 
in the terms of an arithmetical progression. The movement 
is in the direction of concentration and it is distinctly marked 
in its measures. The movement is therefore rhythmical. 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 107 

In this case we have a series of straight lines with a constant 
change of direction to the right; but in this case the changes 
of measure in the lines are in the terms of a geometrical pro- 
gression. The direction is the same, the pull of concentration 
perhaps stronger. 




Fig. 108 



In this Rhythm there is an arithmetical gradation of measures 
in the changes of direction, both in the length of the legs and 
in the measure of the angles. The pull of concentration is, in 



LINES 63 

this case, very much increased. It is evident that the legs 
may vary arithmetically and the angles geometrically; or the 
angles arithmetically and the legs geometrically. 

85. If, in the place of the straight lines, which form the legs, 
in any of the examples given, are substituted lines which in 
themselves induce movement, the feeling of Rhythm may be 
still further increased, provided the directions of movement 
are consistent. 




Fig. 109 



In this case the movement is in the direction of increasing 
concentration and in the direction of the convergences. 

If the movement of the convergences be contrary to the 
movement of concentration, there will be in the figure a con- 
trary motion which may diminish or even entirely prevent 
the feeling of Rhythm. If the movement in one direction 
or the other predominates, we may still get the feeling of 
Rhythm, in spite of the drawback of the other and contrary 
movement. 



64 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 110 

In this case the linear convergences substituted for the straight 
lines are contrary to the direction of increasing concentration. 
The movement is doubtful. 

86. Corresponding rhythms, set in contrary motion, give us 
the feeling of Balance rather than of Rhythm. The balance 
in such cases is a balance of movements. 




Fig. Ill 



This is an example of corresponding and opposed rhythms 
producing the feeling, not of Rhythm, but of Balance. 



ATTITUDES 

LINES IN DIFFERENT ATTITUDES 

87. Any line or linear progression may be turned upon a 
center, and so made to take an indefinite number and variety 



LINES 65 

of attitudes. It may be inverted upon an axis, and the inver- 
sion may be turned upon a center producing another series 
of attitudes which, except in the case of axial symmetry in 
the line, will be different from those of the first series. 






Fig. 112 

In this case the line changes its attitude. 







Fig. 113 



In this case I have inverted the line, and turning the inversion 
upon a center I get a different set of attitudes. 




Fig. 114 

In this case, which is a case of axial symmetry in the line, the 
inversion gives us no additional attitudes. 

THE ORDER OF HARMONY IN THE ATTITUDES OF LINES 

88. When any line or linear progression is repeated, with- 
out change of attitude, we have a Harmony of Attitudes. 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 115 

This is an illustration of Harmony of Attitudes. It is also 
an illustration of Interval-Harmony. 

89. We have a Harmony of Attitudes, also, in the repetition 
of any relation of two or more attitudes, the relation of atti- 
tudes being repeated without change of attitude. 









Kg. lie 

We have here a Harmony of Attitudes due to the repetition 
of a certain relation of attitudes, without change of attitude. 

THE ORDER OF BALANCE IN THE ATTITUDES OF LINES 

90. When a line or linear progression is inverted upon any 
axis or center, and we see the original line and its inversion 
side by side, we have a Balance of Attitudes. 



LINES 



67 






n 



m 




Kg. 117 

The relation of attitudes I, II, of III, IV, and of I, II, III, 

IV, is that of Symmetrical Balance on a vertical axis. The 
relation of attitudes I, IV, and of II, III, is a relation of 
Balance but not of Symmetrical Balance. This is true, also, 
of the relation of I, III and of II, IV. Double inversions 
are never symmetrical, but they are illustrations of Balance. 
The balance of double inversions is central, not axial. These 
statements are all repetitions of statements previously made 
about positions. 

THE ORDER OF RHYTHM IN THE ATTITUDES OF LINES 

91. It often happens that a line repeated in different atti- 
tudes gives us the sense of movement. It does this when the 
grouping of the repetitions suggests instability. The move- 
ment is rhythmical when it exhibits a regularity of changes 
in the attitudes and in the intervals of the changes. 




Fig. 118 

In this case we have a movement to the right, but no Rhythm, 
the intervals being irregular. 



68 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Pig. 119 

In this case the changes of attitude and the intervals of the 
changes being regular, the movement becomes rhythmical. 
The direction of the rhythm is clearly down-to-the-right. 

92. In the repetition of any line we have a Harmony, due 
to the repetition. If the line is repeated in the same attitude, 
we have a Harmony of Attitudes. If it is repeated in the same 
intervals, we have a Harmony of Intervals. We have Har- 
mony, also, in the repetition of any relation of attitudes or of 
intervals. 

We have not yet considered the arrangement or composi- 
tion of two or more lines of different measures and of different 
shapes. 

THE COMPOSITION OF LINES 

93. By the Composition of Lines I mean putting two or 
more lines together, in juxtaposition, in contact or interlacing. 
Our object in the composition of lines, so far as Pure Design 
is concerned, is to achieve Order, if possible Beauty, in the 
several modes of Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm. 



LINES 



HARMONY IN THE COMPOSITION OF LINES 

94. We have Harmony in line-compositions when the lines 
which are put together correspond in all respects or in some 
respects, when they correspond in attitudes, and when there 
is a correspondence of distances or intervals. 




Fig. 120 

In this case the lines of the composition correspond in tone, 
measure, and shape, but not in attitude; and there is no cor- 
respondence in distances or intervals. 




Fig. 121 

In this case the attitudes correspond, as they did not in Fig. 
120. There is still no correspondence of intervals. 




Fig. 122 

Here we have the correspondence of intervals which we did 



70 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

not have either in Fig. 120 or in Fig. 121. There is not only 
a Harmony of Attitudes and of Intervals, in this case, but 
the Harmony of a repetition in one direction, Direction-Har- 
mony. In all these cases we have the repetition of a certain 
angle, a right angle, and of a certain measure-relation be- 
tween the legs of the angle, giving Measure and Shape-Har- 
mony. 

95. The repetition in any composition of a certain relation 
of measures, or of a certain proportion of measures, gives 
Measure-Harmony to the composition. The repetition of 
the relation one to three in the legs of the angle, in the illus- 
trations just given, gives to the compositions the Harmony 
of a Recurring Ratio. By a proportion I mean an equality 
between ratios, when they are numerically different. The 
relation of one to three is a ratio. The relation of one to 
three and three to nine is a proportion. We may have in any 
composition the Harmony of a Repeated Ratio, as in Figs. 
120, 121, 122, or we may have a Harmony of Proportions, as 
in the composition which follows. 



Fig. 123 

96. To be in Harmony lines are not necessarily similar in 
all respects. As I have just shown, lines may be in Shape- 
Harmony, without being in any Measure-Harmony. Lines 
are approximately in harmony when they correspond in 
certain particulars, though they differ in others. The more 
points of resemblance between them, the greater the harmony. 
When they correspond in all respects we have, of course, 
a perfect harmony. 



LINES 



71 





Fig. 124 



This is a case of Shape-Harmony without Measure-Harmony 
and without Harmony of Attitudes. 




Fig. 125 

In this case we have a Harmony of Shapes and of Attitudes, 
without Measure-Harmony or Harmony of Intervals. This 
is a good illustration of a Harmony of Proportions. 

Straight lines are in Harmony of Straightness because 
they are all straight, however much they differ in tone or 
measure. They are in Harmony of Measure when they have 
the same measure of length. The measures of width, also, 
may agree or disagree. In every agreement we have Har- 
mony. 

Angular lines are in Harmony when they have one or more 
angles in common. The recurrence of a certain angle in 
different parts of a composition brings Harmony into the 
composition. Designers are very apt to use different angles 
when there is no good reason for doing so, when the repeti- 
tion of one would be more orderly. 



72 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 126 

The four lines in this composition have right angles in com- 
mon. To that extent the lines are in Harmony. There is also 
a Harmony in the correspondence of tones and of width- 
measures in the lines. Considerable Harmony of Attitudes 
occurs in the form of parallelisms. 




Fig. 127 



These two lines have simply one angle in common, a right 
angle, and the angle has the same attitude in both cases. They 
differ in other respects. 




Fig. 128 

In these three lines the only element making for Harmony, 
except the same tone and the same width, is found in the 
presence in each line of a certain small arc of a circle. 
Straightness occurs in two of the lines but not in the third. 
There is a Harmony, therefore, between two of the lines from 
which the third is excluded. There is, also, a Harmony of 
Attitude in these two lines, in certain parallelisms. 



LINES 



73 



BALANCE IN THE COMPOSITION OP LINES 

97. Lines balance when in opposite attitudes. We get 
Balance in all inversions, whether single or double. 




Fig. 129 

Here similar lines are drawn in opposite attitudes and we 
get Measure and Shape-Balance. In the above case the axis 
of balance is vertical. The balance is, therefore, symmetrical. 
Symmetrical Balance is obtained by the single inversion of 
any line or lines on a vertical axis. Double inversion gives a 
Balance of Measures and Shapes on a center. We have no 
Symmetry in double inversions. All this has been explained. 





Fig. ISO 

We have Measure and Shape-Balance on a center in this case. 
It is a case of double inversion. It is interesting to turn these 
double inversions on their centers, and to observe the very 
different effects they produce in different attitudes. 



74 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

98. Shapes in order to balance satisfactorily must be drawn 
in the same measure, as in Fig. 131 which follows. 




Fig. 131 




Fig. 132 

Here, in Fig. 132, we have Shape-Harmony without Measure- 
Harmony. It might be argued that we have in this case 
an illustration of Shape-Balance without Measure-Balance. 
Theoretically that is so, but Shape-Balance without Measure- 
Balance is never satisfactory. If we want the lines in Fig. 132 
to balance we must find the balance-center between them, 
and then indicate that center by a symmetrical inclosure. 
We shall then have a Measure-Balance (occult) without 
Shape-Balance. 

99. When measures correspond but shapes differ the bal- 
ance-center may be suggested by a symmetrical inclosure or 
framing. When that is done the measures become balanced. 



LINES 



75 




Fig. 133 

Here we have Measure-Harmony and a Measure-Balance 
without Shape-Harmony or Shape-Balance. The two lines 
have different shapes but the same measures, lengths and 
widths corresponding. The balance-center is found for each 
line. See pp. 54, 55. Between the two centers is found the 
center, upon which the two lines will balance. This center is 
then suggested by a symmetrical inclosure. The balancing 
measures in such cases may, of course, be turned upon their 
centers, and the axis connecting their centers may be turned 
in any direction or attitude, with no loss of equilibrium, so 
far as the measures are concerned. 





Fig. 134 



The Balance of Measures here is just as good as it is in 
Fig. 133. The attitudes are changed but not the relation of 



76 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

the three balance-centers. The change of shape in the inclos- 
ure makes no difference. 

100. Measure-Balance without Shape-Harmony or Shape- 
Balance is satisfactory only when the balance-center is un- 
mistakably indicated or suggested, as in the examples which 
I have given. 

101. There is another form of Balance which is to be 
inferred from what I have said, on page 18, of the Balance 
of Directions, but it needs to be particularly considered and 
more fully illustrated. I mean a Balance in which direc- 
tions or inclinations to the right are counteracted by corre- 
sponding or equivalent directions or inclinations to the left. 
The idea in its simplest and most obvious form is illustrated 
in Fig. 22, on page 18. In that case the lines of inclina- 
tion correspond. They do not necessarily correspond except 
in the extent of contrast, which may be distributed in various 
ways. 



Fig. 135 

The balance of inclinations in this case is just as good as the 
balance in Fig. 22. There is no symmetry as in Fig. 22. 
Three lines balance against one. The three lines, however, 
show the same extent of contrast as the one. So far as the 
inclinations are concerned they will balance in any arrange- 
ment which lies well within the field of vision. The eye must 
be able to appreciate the fact that a disposition to fall to the 



LINES 



77 



right is counteracted by a corresponding or equivalent dis- 
position to fall to the left. 




Fig. 136 



This arrangement of the inclining lines is just as good as the 
arrangement in Fig. 135. The inclinations may be dis- 
tributed in any way, provided they counteract one another 
properly. 




Fig. 137 

In this case I have again changed the composition, and having 
suggested the balance-center of the lines, as attractions, by 
a symmetrical inclosure, I have added Measure-Balance (oc- 
cult) to Inclination-Balance. The Order in Fig. 137 is 
greater than the Order in Figs. 135 and 136. In Fig. 137 
two forms of Balance are illustrated, in the other cases only 
one. The value of any composition lies in the number of 
orderly connections which it shows. 



78 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 138 

In this case I have taken a long angular line and added a 
sufficient number and extent of opposite inclinations to make 
a balance of inclinations. The horizontal part of the long line 
is stable, so it needs no counteraction, but the other parts 
incline in various degrees, to the left or to the right. Each 
inclining part requires, therefore, either a corresponding line 
in a balancing direction, or two or more lines of equivalent 
extension in that direction. In one case I have set three lines 
to balance one, but they equal the one in length, that is to 
say, in the extent of contrast. We have in Fig. 138 an illus- 
tration of occult Measure-Balance and the Balance of Incli- 
nations. I have illustrated the idea of Inclination-Balance by 
very simple examples. I have not considered the inclinations 
of curves, nor have I gone, at all, into the more difficult prob- 
lem of balancing averages of inclination, when the average 
of two or more different inclinations of different extents of 
contrast has to be counteracted. In Tone-Relations the 
inclinations are of tone-contrasts, and a short inclination with 
a strong contrast may balance a long inclination with a slight 
one, or several inclinations of slight contrasts may serve to 
balance one of a strong contrast. The force of any inclining 
line may be increased by increasing the tone-contrast with 



LINES 



79 



the ground tone. In tone-relations the problem becomes 
complicated and difficult. The whole subject of Inclination- 
Balance is one of great interest and worthy of a separate 
treatise. 

RHYTHM IN THE COMPOSITION OF LINES 

102. We will first consider the Measure-Rhythms which 
result from a gradual increase of scale, an increase in the 
extent of the contrasts. The intervals must, in such Rhythms, 
be regular and marked. They may be equal ; they may alter- 
nate, or they may be regularly progressive. 



Fig. 139 

In this case I feel that the direction of the Rhythm is up-to- 
the-right owing to the gradual increase of length and conse- 
quently of the extent of contrast in the line's, in that direction. 



Fig. 140 

In this case I have, by means of regularly diminishing in- 
tervals, added the force of a crowding together of contrasting 
edges to the force of a gradual extension of them. The 
movement is still more strongly up-to-the-right. 



80 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Fig. 141 

In this case a greater extension of contrasts pulls one way 
and a greater crowding of contrasts the other. I think that 
crowding has the best of it. The movement, though much 
retarded, is, I feel, down-to-the-left rather than up-to-the- 
right, in spite of the fact that the greater facility of reading 
to the right is added to the force of extended contrasts. 

103. Substituting unstable for stable attitudes in the ex- 
amples just given, we are able to add the movement suggested 
by instability of attitude to the movement caused by a gradual 
extension of contrasts. 




Fig. 142 

The movement up-to-the-right in Fig. 139 is here connected 
with an inclination of all the lines down-to-the-right. 




Fig. 143 



Here the falling of the lines down-to-the-left counteracts the 



LINES 



81 



movement in the opposite direction which is caused by the 
extension of contrasting edges in that direction. A crowding 
together of the lines, due to the diminution of intervals toward 
the left, adds force to the movement in that direction. 




Fig. 144 



In this case a movement up is caused by convergences, a 
movement down by crowding. The convergences are all up, 
the crowding down. I think that the convergences have it. 
I think the movement is, on the whole, up. The intervals of 
the crowding down diminish arithmetically. 




Fig. 145 

The convergences and the crowding of attractions are, here, 
both up-to-the-right. The Rhythm is much stronger than it 
was in Fig. 144. The intervals are those of an arithmetical 
progression. 



82 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 146 

The movement here is up-to-the-right, because of conver- 
gences in that direction and an extension of contrasts in that 
direction. 




Fig. 147 

In this case the two movements part company. One leads the 
eye up-to-the-left, the other leads it up-to-the-right. The 
movement as a whole is approximately up. As the direction 
of the intervals is horizontal, not vertical, this is a case of 
movement without Rhythm. The movement will become 
rhythmic only in a vertical repetition. That is to say, the 
direction or directions of the movement in any Rhythm and 
the direction or directions of its repetitions must coincide. 
In Fig. 139, the movement is up-to-the-right, and the inter- 
vals may be taken in the same direction, but in Fig. 147 the 
movement is up. The intervals cannot be taken in that direc- 
tion. It is, therefore, impossible to get any feeling of Rhythm 
from the composition. We shall get the feeling of Rhythm 
only when we repeat the movement in the direction of the 
movement, which is up. 



LINES . 83 



\ 




V 

Fig. 148 

Here we have a vertical repetition of the composition given in 
Fig. 147. The result is an upward movement in regular and 
marked intervals, answering to our understanding of Rhythm. 







Fig. 149 

In this case we have a curved movement. The lines being 



){AWfNC AND pAmrwj E* POLE DESIGN 

at, r*ppla,r intervals, the movement is in regular an 
iiin,rk?-t\ rn^aHiirfts. Ita direction is due to an increase in tb 
of attractions, to crowding, and tn convergences. Tfe 
t is, accordingly, rhythmical. 





Fig. 130 

The movement of Fig. 149 is here partly destroyed by n 
inversion and opposition of attitudes and directions. Tie 
movement is, on the whole, up. but it can hardly be describd 
as rhythmical, because it has uo repetition upwards, as it hs 
in the next illustration. Fig. 1J1. Before proceeding, hor- 
ever, to the consideration of Fig. 151. I want to call the atto- 
tion of the reader to the fact that we have in Fig. 150 a tpe 
of Balance to which I have not particularly referred. Itis 
a case of unsytnnietrical balance on a vertical axis. Tie 
balancing shapes and movements correspond. They inche 
in opposite directions. They diverge equally from the verbal 
axis. The inclinations balance. At the same time the cm- 
position does not answer to our understanding of Symie- 
try. It is not a case of right-and-left balance on the verbal 
axis. The shapes and movements are not right and left nd 
opposite. One of the shapes is set higher than the oter. 
The balance is on the vertical. It is obvious, but it is ot 
symmetrical. It is a form of Balance which has many nd 
very interesting possibilities. 



^ 



^ 



^ 



nt i ~*Ti~it 



imc. fi? OK 






86 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

The feeling of upward movement in Fig. 151 is, no doubt, 
partly due to the suggestion of upward growth in certain 
forms of vegetation. The suggestion is inevitable. So far as 
the movement is caused by this association of ideas it is a 
matter, not of sensation, but of perception. The considera- 
tion of such associations of ideas does not belong, properly, 
to Pure Design, where we are dealing with sense-impressions, 
exclusively. 

104. Rhythm is not inconsistent with Balance. It is only 
necessary to get movements which have the same or nearly 
the same direction and which are rhythmical in character to 
balance on the same axis and we have a reconciliation of the 
two principles. 



< < 
< < 




Fig. 152 

Here we have a Rhythm, of somewhat contrary movements, 
with Balance, Balance on a diagonal axis. The Balance 



LINES 87 



is not satisfactory. The Balance of Inclinations is felt more 
than the Balance of Shapes. 

fir -f 



ff 



IT 



- r 



r- 

ff 



IT 



r -i 




r 



Kg. 153 



In this case we have the combination of a Rhythm of some- 
what contrary, but on the whole upward, movements with 
Symmetry. 

If the diverging movements of Fig. 153 should be made 
still more diverging, so that they become approximately con- 
trary and opposite, the feeling of a general upward movement 
will disappear. The three movements to the right will bal- 
ance the three movements to the left, and we shall have an 
illustration of Symmetrical Balance, with no Rhythm in the 
composition as a whole. It is doubtful whether the balance 
of contrary and opposite movements is satisfactory. Our eyes 
are drawn in opposite directions, away from the axis of balance, 
instead of being drawn toward it. Our appreciation of the 
balance must, therefore, be diminished. Contrary and opposite 
movements neutralize one another, so we have neither rest nor 
movement in the balance of contrary motions. 



88 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

By bringing the divergences of movement together, grad- 
ually, we shall be able to increase, considerably, the upward 
movement shown in Fig. 153. At the same time, the sug- 
gestion of an upward growth of vegetation becomes stronger. 
The increase of movement will be partly explained by this 
association of ideas. 





i 










Fig. 164 

Here all the movements are pulled together into one direction. 
The Rhythm is easier and more rapid. The Balance is just 
as good. The movement in this case is no doubt facilitated 
by the suggestion of upward growth. It is impossible to 
estimate the force which is added by such suggestions and 
associations. 



LINES 



\ 



r 



IT 



Fig. 155 



Here the movements come together in another way. 

The number and variety of these illustrations might, of 
course, be indefinitely increased. Those which I have given 
will, I think, serve to define the principal modes of line- 
composition, when the lines are such as we choose to draw. 

THE COMPOSITION OF VAHIOUS LINES 

105. In most of the examples I have given I have used 
repetitions of the same line or similar lines. When the lines 
which are put together are not in harmony, when they are 
drawn, as they may be, without any regard to the exigencies of 



90 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

orderly composition, the problem becomes one of doing the 
best we can with our terms. We try for the greatest possible 
number of orderly connections, connections making for Har- 
mony, Balance, and Rhythm. We arrange the lines, so far as 
possible, in the same directions, giving them similar attitudes, 
getting, in details, as much Harmony of Direction and of 
Attitudes as possible, and establishing as much Harmony of 
Intervals as possible between the lines. By spacing and placing 
we try to get differences of character as far as possible into 
regular alternations or gradations in which there will be a 
suggestion either of Harmony or of Rhythm. A suggestion of 
Symmetry is sometimes possible. Occult Balance is possible 
in all cases, as it depends, not upon the terms balanced, but 
upon the indication of a center of attractions by a symme- 
trical framing of them. 

Let us take seven lines, with a variety of shape-character, 
with as little Shape-Harmony as possible, and let us try to put 
these lines together in an orderly way. 





Pig. 156 

With these lines, which show little or no harmony of char- 
acter, which agree only in tone and in width-measure, lines 
which would not be selected certainly as suitable material 
for orderly compositions, I will make three compositions, 
getting as much Order into each one as I can, just to illus- 
trate what I mean. I shall not be able to achieve a great 
deal of Order, but enough, probably, to satisfy the reader 
that the effort has been worth while. 



LINES 91 




Fig. 157 



In this case I have achieved the suggestion of a Symmetrical 
Balance on a vertical axis with some Harmony of Directions 
and of Attitudes and some Interval-Harmony. 




Fig. 158 

In this case, also, I have achieved a suggestion of Order, 
if not Order itself. Consider the comparative disorder in 
Fig. 156, where no arrangement has been attempted. 



92 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 159 

Here is another arrangement of the same terms. Fortu- 
nately, in all of these cases, the lines agree in tone and in 
width-measure. That means considerable order to begin, 
with. 

This problem of taking any terms and making the best 
possible arrangement of them is a most interesting problem, 
and the ability to solve it has a practical value. We have the 
problem to solve in every-day life; when we have to arrange, 
as well as we can, in the best possible order, all the useful and 
indispensable articles we have in our houses. To achieve 
a consistency and unity of effect with a great number and 
variety of objects is never easy. It is often very difficult. It 
is particularly difficult when we have no two objects alike, 
no correspondence, no likeness, to make Harmony. With the 
possibility of repetitions and inversions the problem becomes 
comparatively easy. With repetitions and inversions we have 
the possibility, not only of Harmony, but of Balance and 
Rhythm. With inversions we have the possibility, not only of 
Balance, but of Symmetrical Balance, and when we have that 
we are not at all likely to think whether the terms of which 
the symmetry is composed are in harmony or not. We feel the 
Order of Symmetry and we are satisfied. 



LINES 



93 





-J C 





Fig. 160 



In this design I repeat an inversion of the arrangement in 
Fig. 158. The result is a symmetry, and no one is likely 
to ask whether the elements of which it is composed are 






94 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

harmonious or not. By inversions, single and double, it is 
possible to achieve the Order of Balance, in all cases. 




Fig. 161 



For this design I have made another arrangement of my seven 
lines. The arrangement suggests movement. In repeating the 
arrangement at regular and equal intervals, without change 
of attitude, I produce the effect of Rhythm. Without resorting 
to inversion, it is difficult to make even an approximation to 



LINES 95 

Symmetry with such terms (see Fig. 157), but there is little 
or no difficulty in making a consistent or fairly consistent 
movement out of them, which, being repeated at regular inter- 
vals, without change of attitude, or with a gradual change 
of attitude, will produce the effect of Rhythm. 

Up to this point I have spoken of the composition of lines 
in juxtaposition, that is to say, the lines have been placed 
near together so as to be seen together. I have not spoken 
of the possibilities of Contact and Interlacing. The lines in 
any composition may touch one another or cross one another. 
The result will be a composition of connected lines. In certain 
cases the lines will become the outlines of areas. I will defer 
the illustration of contacts and interlacings until I come to 
consider the composition of outlines. 



OUTLINES 

DEFINITION OF OUTLINES 

106. OUTLINES are lines which, returning to themselves, 
make inclosures and describe areas of different measures 
and shapes. What has been said of lines may be said, also, 
of outlines. It will be worth while, however, to give a sepa- 
rate consideration to outlines, as a particularly interesting 
and important class of lines. 

As in the case of dots and lines, I shall disregard the fact 
that the outlines may be drawn in different tones, making 
different contrasts of value, color, or color-intensity with the 
ground- tone upon which they are drawn. I shall, also, dis- 
regard possible differences of width in the lines which make 
the outlines. I shall confine my attention, here, to the mea- 
sures and shapes of the outlines and to the possibilities of 
Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm in those measures and shapes. 

HARMONY, BALANCE, AND RHYTHM IN OUTLINES 

107. What is Harmony or Balance or Rhythm in a line 
is Harmony, Balance, or Rhythm in an Outline. 




Fig. 162 

In this outline we have Measure-Harmony in the angles, 
Measure- Harmony of lengths in the legs of the angles, Mea- 
sure and Shape-Balance on a center and Symmetry on the 
vertical axis. The same statement will be true of all poly- 
gons which are both equiangular and equilateral, when they 
are balanced on a vertical axis. 



OUTLINES 



97 



Fig. 163 



In this case we have Measure-Harmony of angles but no 
Measure-Harmony of lengths in the legs of the angles. We 
have lost Measure and Shape-Balance on a center which we 
had in the previous example. 



Fig. 164 

In this case the angles are not all in a Harmony of Measure; 
but we have Measure-Harmony of lengths in the legs of the 
angles, and we have Measure and Shape-Balance on a center. 
There is a certain Harmony in the repetition of a relation of 
two angles. 



o 



Fig. 165 



In this case we have Measure-Harmony in the angles, which 
are equal, and a Harmony due to the repetition of a certain 
measure- relation in the legs of the angles. As in Fig. 162, we 
have here a Measure and Shape-Balance on a center and 
Symmetry on the vertical axis. This polygon is not equilat- 
eral, but its sides are symmetrically disposed. Many interest- 
ing and beautiful figures may be drawn in these terms. 



98 



DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 166 

We have in the circle the most harmonious of all outlines. 
The Harmony of the circle is due to the fact that all sections 
of it have the same radius and equal sections of it have, also, 
the same angle-measure. The circle is, of course, a perfect 
illustration of Measure and Shape-Balance on a center. The 
balance is also symmetrical. We have a Harmony of Direc- 
tions in the repetition of the same change of direction at 
every point of the outline, and we have a Harmony of Dis- 
tances in the fact that all points of the outline are equally 
distant from the balance-center, which is unmistakably felt. 




Fig. 167 

The Ellipse is another example of Measure and Shape- 
Balance on a center. In this attitude it is also an illustration 
of Symmetry. 




Fig. 168 



In this case we still have balance but no symmetry. The 
attitude suggests movement. We cannot help feeling that the 
figure is falling down to the left. A repetition at equal inter- 
vals would give us Rhythm. 



OUTLINES 



99 




Fig. 169 

In this case we have an outline produced by the single inver- 
sion of a line in which there is the repetition of a certain 
motive in a gradation of measures. That gives Shape- 
Harmony without Measure-Harmony. This is a case of 
Symmetrical Balance. It is also a case of rhythmic movement 
upward. The movement is mainly due to convergences. 




Fig. 170 

In this case, also, the shapes repeated on the right side and 
on the left side of the outline show movements which become 
in repetitions almost rhythmical. The movement is up in 
spite of the fact that each part of the movement is, in its end- 
ing, down. We have in these examples symmetrical balance 
on a vertical axis combined with rhythm on the same axis. 
It may be desirable to find the balance-center of an outline 
when only the axis is indicated by the character of the outline. 
The principle which we follow is the one already described. 
In Fig. 169 we have a symmetrical balance on a vertical axis, 
but there is nothing to indicate the balance-center. It lies 
on the axis somewhere, but there is nothing to show us where 



100 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



it is. Regarding the outline as a line of attractions, the eye 
is presumably held at their balance-center, wherever it is. 
Exactly where it is is a matter of visual feeling. The balance- 
center being ascertained, it may be indicated by a symmetrical 
outline or inclosure, the center of which cannot be doubtful. 




Fig. 171 



The balance-center, as determined by visual feeling, is here 
clearly indicated. In this case besides the balance on a center 
we have also the Symmetry which we had in Fig. 169. 




Pig. 172 

The sense of Balance is, in this case, much diminished by the 
change of attitude in the balanced outline. We have our 
balance upon a center, all the same; but the balance on the 



OUTLINES 



101 



vertical axis being lost, we have no longer any Symmetry. 
It will be observed that balance on a center is not inconsistent 
with movement. If this figure were repeated at equal inter- 
vals without change of attitude, or with a gradual change, we 
should have the Rhythm of a repeated movement. 

In some outlines only certain parts of the outlines 
orderly, while other parts are disorderly. 



are 




Fig. 173 

In the above outline we have two sections corresponding in 
measure and shape-character and in attitude. We have, there- 
fore, certain elements of the outline in harmony. We feel 
movement but not rhythm in the relation of the two curves. 
There is no balance of any kind. 

We ought to be able to recognize elements of order as they 
occur in any outline, even when the outline, as a whole, is 
disorderly. 




Pig. 174 



In order to balance the somewhat irregular outline given 
in Fig. 173, we follow the procedure already described. The 
effect, however, is unsatisfactory. The composition lacks sta- 
bility. 



102 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 175 

The attitude of the figure is here made to conform, as far 
as possible, to the shape and attitude of the symmetrical 
framing: this for the sake of Shape and Attitude-Harmony. 
The change of attitude gives greater stability. 

INTERIOR DIMENSIONS OF AN OUTLINE 

108. A distinction must be drawn between the measures 
of the outline, as an outline, and the measures of the space or 
area lying within the outline: what may be called the interior 
dimensions of the outline. 



Fig. 176 

In this case we must distinguish between the measures of 
the outline and the dimensions of the space inclosed within 
it. When we consider the measures not of the outline, 
but of the space or area inside of the outline we may look 
in these measures, also, for Harmony, for Balance, or for 
Rhythm, and for combinations of these principles. 

HARMONY IN THE INTERIOR DIMENSIONS OF AN OUTLINE 

109. We have Harmony in the interior dimensions of an 
outline when the dimensions correspond or when a certain 
relation of dimensions is repeated. 



OUTLINES 



103 



Fig. 177 



In this case we have an outline which shows a Harmony in 
the correspondence of two dimensions. 



Fig. 178 

In this case we have Harmony in the correspondence of all 
vertical dimensions, Harmony in the correspondence of all 
horizontal dimensions, but no relation of Harmony between 
the two. It might be argued, from the fact that the interval 
in one direction is twice that in the other, that the dimen- 
sions have something in common, namely, a common divisor. 
It is very doubtful, however, whether this fact is appreciable 
in the sense of vision. The recurrence of any relation of two 
dimensions would, no doubt, be appreciated. We should have, 
in that case, Shape-Harmony. 




Fig. 179 



In this circle we have a Measure-Harmony of diameters. 



104 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



._n_n_n_ 
h_n_ri_r 



Fig. 180 



In this case we have a Harmony due to the repetition of a 
certain ratio of vertical intervals : 1:3, 1:3, 1:3. 

110. Any gradual diminution of the interval between oppo- 
site sides in an outline gives us a convergence in which the 
eye moves more or less rapidly toward an actual or possible 
contact. The more rapid the convergence the more rapid the 
movement. 

A 




Fig. 181 

In this case we have not only symmetrical balance on a vertical 
axis but movement, in the upward and rapid convergence 
of the sides BA and CA toward the angle A. The question 
may be raised whether the movement, in this case, is up from 
the side BC to the angle A or down from the. angle A toward 
the side BC. I think that the reader will agree that the 
movement is from the side BC into the angle A. In this 
direction the eye is more definitely guided. The opposite 
movement from A toward BC is a movement in diverging 
directions which the eye cannot follow to any distance. As 



OUTLINES 105 

the distance from BC toward A decreases, the convergence of 
the sides BA and CA is more and more helpful to the eye and 
produces the feeling of movement. The eye finds itself in a 
smaller and smaller space, with a more and more definite 
impulse toward A. It is a question whether the movement 
from BC toward A is rhythmical or not. The movement is 
not connected with any marked regularity of measures. I 
am inclined to think, however, that the gradual and even 
change of measures produces the feeling of equal changes 
in equal measures. If so, the movement is rhythmical. 

When the movement of the eye in any convergence is a 
movement in regular and marked measures, as in the example 
which follows, the movement is rhythmical, without doubt. 




Fig. 182 

The upward movement in this outline, being regulated by 
measures which are marked and equal, the movement is 
certainly rhythmical, according to our understanding and 
definition of Rhythm. Comparing Fig. 181 with Fig. 182, 
the question arises, whether the movement in Fig. 182 is felt 
to be any more rhythmical than the movement in Fig. 181. 
The measures of the movement in Fig 181 are not marked, 
but I cannot persuade myself that they are not felt in the 
evenness of the gradation. The movement in Fig. 181 is 
easier than it is in Fig. 182, when the marking of the measures 
interferes with the movement. 



106 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 183 

In this case we have another illustration like Fig. 182, only 
the measures of the rhythm are differently marked. The 
force of the convergence is greatest in Fig. 181. It is some- 
what diminished by the measure-marks in Fig. 182. It is still 
further diminished, in Fig. 183, by the angles that break the 
measures. 




Fig. 184 

In this case the movement is more rapid again, the measures 
being measures of an arithmetical progression. There is a 
crowding together of attractions in the direction of the con- 
vergence, and the movement is easier than it is in Fig. 183, 
in spite of the fact that the lines of convergence are more 
broken in Fig. 184. There is an arithmetical diminution 
of horizontal as well as of vertical lines in Fig. 184. 



OUTLINES 



107 




Fig. 185 

In this case the measures of the rhythm are in the terms of a 
geometrical progression. The crowding together of attrac- 
tions is still more rapid in this case and the distance to be 
traversed by the eye is shorter. The convergence, however, 
is less compelling, the lines of the convergence being so 
much broken unnecessarily. 

The movement will be very much retarded, if not pre- 
vented, by having the movement of the crowding and the 
movement of the convergence opposed. 




Fig. 186 



There is no doubt that in this example, which is to be com- 
pared with that of Fig. 184, the upward movement is almost 
prevented. There are here two opposed movements : that of 



108 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



the convergence upward and that of a crowding together of 
attractions downward. The convergence is stronger, I think, 
though it must be remembered that it is probably easier for 
the eye to move up than down, other things being equal. 

111. The movements in all of these cases may be enhanced 
by substituting for the straight lines shapes which are in 
themselves shapes of movement. 




Fig. 187 

Here, for example, the movement of Fig. 184 is facilitated and 
increased by a change of shape in the lines, lines with move- 
ment being substituted for lines which have no movement, 
beyond the movement of the convergence. 




Pig. 188 



OUTLINES 



109 



In Fig. 188 all the shapes have a downward movement which 
contradicts the upward movement of convergence. The 
movement down almost prevents the movement up. 

112. The movement of any convergence may be straight, 
angular, or curved. 




Fig. 189 

In this case the movement of the convergence is angular. It 
should be observed that the movement is distributed in the 
measures of an arithmetical progression, so that we have, not 
only movement, but rhythm. 




Fig. 190 

In this case the movement of convergence is in a curve. The 
stages of the movement, not being marked, the movement is 
not rhythmical, unless we feel that equal changes are taking 
place in equal measures. I am inclined to think that we do 
feel that. The question, however, is one which I would 
rather ask than answer, definitely. 



110 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 191 

In this case the movement is, unquestionably, rhythmical, 
because the measures are clearly marked. The measures are 
in an arithmetical progression. They diminish gradually in 
the direction of the convergence, causing a gradual crowding 
together of attractions in that direction. 

Substituting, in the measures, shapes which have movement, 
the movement of the rhythm may be considerably increased, 
as is shown in the example which follows. 




Fig. 192 

This is a case in which the movement is, no doubt, fa- 
cilitated by an association of ideas, the suggestion of a 
growth. 

113. The more obvious the suggestion of growth, the more 
inevitable is the movement in the direction of it, whatever 
that direction is. It must be understood, however, that the 
movement in such cases is due to an association of ideas, not 
to the pull of attractions in the sense of vision. The pull of 
an association of ideas may or may not be in the direction 
of the pull of attractions. 



OUTLINES 111 




Fig. 193 

In Fig. 193 we have an illustration of a rhythmic move- 
ment upward. The upward movement is due quite as much 
to an association of ideas, the thought of a growth of vegeta- 
tion, as it is to mere visual attractions. It happens that the 
figure is also an illustration of Symmetrical Balance. As we 
have Harmony in the similarity of the opposite sides, the 
figure is an illustration of combined Harmony, Balance, and 
Rhythm. 

There is another point which is illustrated in Fig. 193. It 
is this : that we may have rhythmic movement in an outline, 
or, indeed, in any composition of lines, which shows a gradual 
and regular change from one shape to another; which shows 
a gradual and regular evolution or development of shape- 
character; provided the changes are distributed in regular 
and marked measures and the direction of the changes, the 
evolution, the development, is unmistakable; as it is in 
Fig. 193. The changes of shape in the above outline are 
changes which are gradual and regular and suggest an 
upward movement unmistakably. The movement, however, 



112 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

involves a comparison of shape with shape, so it is as much 
a matter of perception as of sensation. Evolutions and de- 
velopments in Space, in the field of vision, are as interesting 
as evolutions and developments in the duration of Time. 
When the changes in such movements are regular, when 
they take place in regular and marked measures, when we 
must take them in a certain order, the movements are 
rhythmical, whether in Time or in Space. 

THE ATTITUDES OF OUTLINES 

114. Any outline, no matter what dimensions or shape it 
has, may be turned upon a center and in that way made to 
take a great number and variety of attitudes. Not only may 
it be turned upon a center but inverted upon an axis. Being 
inverted, the inversion may be turned upon a center and made 
to take another series of attitudes, and this second series of 
attitudes will be different from the first series, except in cases 
of axial symmetry in the outline or area. It must be clearly 
understood that a change of attitude in any outline or area is 
not a change of shape. 

115. What has been said of Harmony, Balance, and 
Rhythm in the attitudes of a line applies equally well to out- 
lines and to the spaces defined by them. 

THE ARRANGEMENT AND COMPOSITION OF OUTLINES 

116. By the composition of outlines I mean putting two or 
more outlines in juxtaposition, in contact or interlacing. In 
all cases of interlacing, of course, the shape-character of the 
interlacing outlines is lost. The outlines become the outlines 
of other areas and of a larger number of them. Our object in 
putting outlines together is, in Pure Design, to illustrate the 
orders of Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm, to achieve Order, 
as much as we can, if possible Beauty. 

I will now give a series of examples with a brief analysis 
or explanation of each one. 



OUTLINES 113 





Fig. 194 



In this case we have Shape-Harmony in the outlines and also 
a Harmony of Attitudes. 



000 



Fig. 195 



Here we have another illustration of the Harmony of Shapes 
and of Attitudes, with a Harmony of Intervals, which we did 
not have in Fig. 194 



000 
000 
000 



Fig. 196 



In this case we have a Harmony of Attitudes and of Intervals 
(the Harmony of a repeated Relation of Intervals) in what 
may be called an All- Over Repetition. 






114 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 





Fig. 197 



In this case we have a Harmony of Attitudes in the repetition 
of a relation of two opposite attitudes ; this with Shape- Har- 
mony and Interval-Harmony. 




Fig. 198 

In this case we have a Symmetry of Attitudes, with Shape- 
Harmony and Interval-Harmony. Turning the composition 
off the vertical axis we should have Balance but no Symmetry. 
The balance-center will be felt in all possible attitudes of this 
composition. 





Fig. 199 



In this case I have repeated a certain outline, which gives me 
the Harmony of a repetition, this in connection with a pro- 
gression in scale, so that the Harmony is Shape-Harmony, 
not Measure-Harmony. We have in the attitude of this repe- 



OUTLINES 115 

tition a Symmetrical Balance. The movement is rhythmical 
and the direction of the rhythm is up. 

The movement in Fig. 199 might be indefinitely increased 
by the introduction into it of a gradation of attractions, 
increasing in number. That means that the extent of contrast- 
ing edges is increased from measure to measure. 





6 

Fig. 200 

The addition of details, increasing in number from measure 
to measure upward, increases the movement of the rhythm 
in that direction. 











o 



Fig. 201 

Taking the arrangement of Fig. 199 and repeating it six times 



116 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

at diverging angles of sixty degrees, we get what may be called 
a radial balance upon the basis of a hexagon. 

Outlines may be drawn one inside of the other or several 
inside of one. 





Fig. 202 

This is a case of outlines-within-outlines and of Shape- 
Harmony without Measure-Harmony. There is, also, a 
Harmony of Attitudes, but no Harmony of Intervals. 

Interesting results may be produced by drawing a series of 
outlines similar in shape, the second inside of the first, the 
third inside of the second, and so on. 



Fig. 203 

In this case, for example, we have the outlines drawn one 
inside of the other. The outlines have all the same shape, 
but different measures. It is a case of Shape-Harmony and 
Harmony of Attitudes, without Measure-Harmony, and with- 
out any Harmony of Intervals. This is a very interesting 
and important form of Design which has many applications. 



OUTLINES 



117 




Fig. 204 



In this case, also, we have Shape-Harmony without Measure- 
Harmony. We have a Harmony of Attitudes and also of 
Intervals, the spaces between the outlines corresponding. 




s<\ 
\\y 



xz 



\ 



Fig. 205 

Here we have the Harmony of an alternation of Attitudes 
repeated, with Shape-Harmony, without Measure-Harmony. 

In all forms of design in which we have the concentric 
repetition of a certain outline we have, in connection with 
the feeling of a central balance, the feeling of a movement 
or movements toward the center. These movements are due 
to convergences. Movements carrying the eye away from 
the center, in opposite directions, interfere with the feeling 
of balance. The feeling is enhanced, however, when the 
movements converge and come together. 

We may have not only an alternation of attitudes in these 
cases, but an alternation of shape-character. 



118 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 206 



The repetition of outlines-within-outlines may be concen- 
tric or eccentric. The repetition is concentric in Fig. 204. 
It is eccentric in the example which follows. 




Fig. 207 

In all eccentric repetitions like this we have a lack of balance 
and the suggestion of movement. The direction of the move- 
ment is determined by the direction of convergences and of 
the crowding together of attractions. The movement in Fig. 
207 is up-to-the-left, unmistakably. Repeating the composi- 
tion of Fig. 207, at regular intervals and without change of 
attitude, the movement up-to-the-left would be extended to 
the repetitions and the movement would be rhythmical. The 
movement is rhythmical in the composition itself, as shown 
in Fig. 207, because the movement in the composition is regu- 
lar in character, regular in its measures, and unmistakable in 
direction. 



OUTLINES 



119 




Fig. 208 

This is another example of eccentric repetition in outlines- 
within-outlines. As in Fig. 207, we have movement, and the 
movement is rhythmical. 

In the examples I have given there have been no contacts 
and no interlacings. Contacts and interfacings are possible. 




Fig. 209 



Here, for an example, is an instance of contact, with Harmony 
of Attitudes and a Symmetrical Balance on a vertical axis. 




Fig. 210 



In this case we have contacts, with no Harmony of Attitudes. 



120 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

The balance which is central as well as axial is in this atti- 
tude of the figure symmetrical. 




Fig. 211 

Here we have a similar composition with interlacings. 

When the outlines have different shapes as well as different 
measures, particularly when the outlines are irregular and the 
shapes to be put together are, in themselves, disorderly, the 
problem of composition becomes more difficult. The best 
plan is to arrange the outlines in a group, making as many 
orderly connections as possible. Taking any composition of 
outlines and repeating it in the different ways which I have 
described, it is generally possible to achieve orderly if not 
beautiful results. 





Fig. 212 



Here are five outlines, very different in shape-character. Let 
us see what can be done with them. A lot of experiments 
have to be tried, to find out what connections, what arrange- 
ments, what effects are possible. The possibilities cannot 
be predicted. Using tracing-paper, a great many experiments 
can be tried in a short time, though it may take a long time 
to reach the best possible results. 



OUTLINES 



121 




Fig. 213 

In this example I have tried to make a good composition with 
my five outlines. The problem is difficult. The outlines to 
be combined have so little Harmony. The only Harmony we 
can achieve will be the Harmony of the same arrangement of 
shapes repeated, which amounts to Shape-Harmony. Inver- 
sions will give us the satisfaction of Balance. Inversions on 
a vertical axis will give us the satisfaction of Symmetry. In 
the design above given I have achieved simply the Harmony 
of a relation of shapes repeated, with Rhythm. The Rhythm 
is due to the repetition of a decidedly unbalanced group of 
elements with a predominance of convergences in one direc- 
tion. The movement is on the whole up, in spite of certain 
downward convergences. The upward convergences predomi- 
nate. There are more inclinations to the right than to the 
left, but the composition which is repeated is unstable in its 
attitude and suggests a falling away to the left. The result- 
ant of these slight divergences of movement is a general 
upward movement. 



i 



122 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 214 

In this case I have less difficulty than in Fig. 213, having left 
out one of my five outlines, the one most difficult to use with 
the others. There is a great gain of Harmony. There is a Har- 
mony of Intervals and a Harmony in the repetition of the same 
grouping of outlines. In the outlines themselves we have a 
Harmony of curved character, and the curves fit one another 
very well, owing to a correspondence of measure and shape- 
character in certain parts. In such cases we are able to get 
considerable Harmony of Attitudes into the composition. 
There is a Harmony of Attitudes in the repeats, as well as 
in certain details. Comparing Fig. 214 with Fig. 213, I am 
sure the reader will agree that we have in Fig. 214 the larger 
measure of Harmony. 




Fig. 215 



OUTLINES 



123 



In Fig. 215 I have used inversions and repetitions of the 
rather disorderly outline which gave me so much difficulty 
when I tried to combine it with the other outlines. Whatever 
merit the composition has is due solely to the art of compo- 
sition, to the presence of Attitude-Harmony, Interval-Har- 
mony, and to the inversions and repetitions; inversions 
giving Balance, repetitions giving Harmony. 

While it is important to recognize the limitation of the 
terms in this problem, it is important to yield to any definite 
impulse which you may feel, though it carries you beyond 
your terms. The value of a rule is often found in breaking it 
for a good and sufficient reason ; and there is no better reason 
than that which allows you, in Design, to follow any impulse 
you may have, provided that it is consistent with the principles 
of Order. 




Fig. 216 

In this case an effort has been made to modify the terms 
already used so as to produce a more rapid and consistent 
movement. Advantage has been taken of the fact that the 
eye is drawn into all convergences, so all pointing down has 



124 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

been, so far as possible, avoided. The movement is dis- 
tinctly rhythmical. 

In the previous examples I have avoided contacts and inter- 
lacing. It was not necessary to avoid them. 




Fig. 217 

117. What is done, in every case, depends upon the designer 
who does it. He follows the suggestions of his imagination, 
not, however, with perfect license. The imagination acts 
within definite limitations, limitations of terms and of princi- 
ples, limitations of certain modes in which terms and princi- 
ples are united. In spite of these limitations, however, if we 
give the same terms, the same principles, and the same modes 
to different people, they will produce very different results. 
Individuality expresses itself in spite of the limitation of terms 
and modes, and the work of one man will be very different 
from the work of another, inevitably. We may have Order, 
Harmony, Balance, or Rhythm in all cases, Beauty only in 
one case, perhaps in no case. It must be remembered how, 
in the practice of Pure Design, we aim at Order and hope 



OUTLINES 125 

for Beauty. Beauty is found only in supreme instances of 
Order, intuitively felt, instinctively appreciated. The end of 
the practice of Pure Design is found in the love of the 
Beautiful, rather than in the production of beautiful things. 
Beautiful things are produced, not by the practice of Pure 
Design, but out of the love of the Beautiful which may be 
developed by the practice. 

AREAS 

118. I have already considered the measures of areas, in dis- 
cussing the interior dimensions of outlines, and in discuss- 
ing the outlines themselves I have considered the shapes of 
areas. It remains for me to discuss the tones in which the 
areas may be drawn and the tone-contrasts by which they may 
be distinguished and defined in their positions, measures, 
and shapes. 

LINEAR AREAS 

119. Before proceeding, however, to the subject of tones 
and tone-relations, I must speak of a peculiar type of area 
which is produced by increasing or diminishing the width of 
a line. I have postponed the discussion of measures of width 
in lines until now. 

A line may change its width in certain parts or passages. It 
may become wider or narrower as the case may be. The wider 
it is the more it is like an area. If it is sufficiently wide, the 
line ceases to be a line, and becomes an area^ The line may 
change its width abruptly or gradually. The effect of the line is 
by these changes indefinitely varied. The line of Design is 
not the line of Geometry. 

120. Considerable interest may be given to what I have 
called Linear Progressions by changing the width of the line 
at certain points, in certain passages, and more or less 
abruptly. The changes will be like accents in the line, giv- 
ing variety and, possibly, an added interest. 



126 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 218 



Let us take this line as the motive of a linear progression. 
We can give it a different character, perhaps a more inter- 
esting character, by widening all the vertical passages, as 
follows : 




Fig. 219 

This is what we get for a motive by widening all the vertical 
passages. 




Pig. 220 



This is what we get for a motive by widening all the hori- 
zontal passages. 




Fig. 221 



Compare this Progression, in which I have used the motive 
of Fig. 219, with that of Fig. 77, p. 47. The accents, which 



OUTLINES 



127 



in Fig. 221 occur in every repetition of the motive, might 
occur only in certain repetitions, at certain intervals. 




Pig. 222 

It is not necessary that the changes in the width of the line 
be abrupt, as in the examples just given. The width of the 
line may increase or diminish gradually, in which case we 
may have, not only accents in the line, but movements due 
to gradations of dimension, to convergences, or to an in- 
crease or gradual crowding together of attractions in a series 
of visual angles. 




Fig. 223 

In this case we have a gradual increase followed by a dimi- 
nution of the width of the line in certain parts, and these 
changes occur at equal intervals. A certain amount of 
rhythmic movement is given to the progression by such ac- 
cents, provided the direction of movement is unmistakable, 
which it is not in this case. It is not at all clear whether the 
movement is down-to-the-right or up-to-the-left. It seems to 
me about as easy to move in one direction as in the other. 



128 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 224 

In this case there is less doubt about the movement. It seems 
to be down-to-the-right. The eye is pulled through an increase 
of width-measures toward a greater extension and crowding 
together of contrasting edges. 




Fig. 225 

Substituting outlines for areas in the previous illustration, 
we are surprised, perhaps, to find that the movement is re- 
versed. We go up-to-the-left in this case, not down-to-the- 
right. The pull of a greater extension of tone-contrast in a 
given area was, in Fig. 224, sufficient to overcome the pull 
of a less evident convergence in the other direction. 

By increasing or diminishing the width of lines, doing it 



OUTLINES 



129 



gradually or abruptly, we are able to control the movement 
of the eye to an indefinite extent. This is one of the impor- 
tant resources of the designer's art. Its use is not limited 
to forms of Linear Progression, but may be extended to all 
forms of Design in which lines are used. 




Fig. 226 

In this case, for example, the eye follows the direction of 
convergences, but we can easily force it to turn and move in 
the opposite direction, by widening the lines in that direction, 
thus increasing the extent of contrasting edge until it more 
than outbalances the convergences ; as in the following illus- 
tration : 




Fig. 227 



THE ARRANGEMENT AND COMPOSITION OF AREAS 

121. What has been said about the composition of Lines 
and Outlines applies equally well to the composition of Areas, 
so far as they are distinguished and defined by outlines. We 
will now proceed to consider areas as distinguished and 
defined, not by outlines, but by tone-contrasts. The com- 
position of lines and outlines is one thing, the composition of 



130 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

tones in different positions, measures, and shapes is another. 
In putting lines and outlines together we draw. The point 
of view is that of drawing. In putting tones in different posi- 
tions, measures, and shapes we paint. The point of view is 
that of the painting. 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 

122. UP to this point I have avoided the consideration 
of Tones and Tone-Relations. I have spoken of possible 
changes of tone in dots and in lines; changes of value, of 
color, of color-intensity; but it is not in dots nor in lines 
that these changes call for particular attention. Our interest 
has been in the positions, measures, shapes, and attitudes 
of dots and lines, and in the possibilities of arrangement 
and composition. When it comes to the consideration of 
areas and area-systems, however, the subject of tone-rela- 
tions becomes one of the greatest interest, because areas are 
defined and distinguished, not only by their outlines, but 
quite as much by differences of tone; that is to say, by tone- 
contrasts. 

THE PROCESS OF PAINTING AS DISTINGUISHED FROM DRAWING 

123. The first thing to consider is the tone of the surface 
upon which you are going to paint. You then take a tone 
differing from the ground-tone, in value, in color, or in color- 
intensity, you put it in a certain position, and you spread it 
over a certain extent of space. In so doing you give to the 
space a certain shape. This is the process of Painting, as 
distinguished from the process of Drawing. In Drawing we 
think of lines and outlines first. In Painting we think of 
Tones first, of positions, measures, and shapes afterwards. 

DEFINITION OF THE WORD TONE 

124. In producing tones we use, necessarily, certain pig- 
ment-materials and mixtures of these materials. The effect 
of light produced by any particular material or mixture we 
call its tone. Though I have been using the word Tone I 
have not yet defined its meaning. I will now do that. 



132 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 
TONE-ANALYSIS, VALUE, COLOR, INTENSITY, NEUTRALITY 

125. In every tone we have to distinguish two elements, 
the quantity of light in it what we call its value and the 
quality of the light in it its color ; and the color, whatever 
it is, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, or Violet, may 
be intense or neutral. By intensity I mean the quality of a 
color in its highest or in a very high degree. By the intensity of 
Red I mean Red when it is as red as possible. The mixture 
of Vermilion and Rose Madder, for example, gives us a Red 
of great intensity. That is about the strongest Red which 
we are able to produce with the pigment-materials which we 
use. Intensity must not be confounded with value nor value 
with intensity. By value I mean more or less light. By in- 
tensity I mean a great purity and brilliancy of color. Intensity 
stands in opposition to neutrality, in which no color can be 
distinguished. The more color we have in any tone the more 
intensity we have. The less the intensity the less color, and 
the absence of color means neutrality or grayness. Neutrality 
or grayness, though it is the negation of color, the zero of 
color, so to speak, must be classed as a color because upon 
analysis it proves to be a result of color combination or mix- 
ture. When I speak, as I shall from time to time, of the 
neutral as a color, it will be understood that I am speaking 
of a combination or mixture of colors in which no particular 
color can be distinguished. I speak of the neutral as a color 
just as I speak of zero as a number. We use zero as a 
number though it is no number, and counts for nothing. 

STUDY OF TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 

126. The study of tones and tone-relations means the study 
of pigment-materials and their effects, to find out what quanti- 
ties of light we can produce, what qualities of color, what 
intensities of color, what neutralizations. That is the problem 
of tones and tone-relations. We cannot know much about 
tones and tone-relations until we have had experience in the 
use of pigment-materials. We must be able to distinguish 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 133 

tones, however slight the differences of value or of color or of 
color-intensity, and we must be able to produce tones accord- 
ing to our discriminations: this with exact precision. In 
order to think in tone-relations we must have definite ideas 
of tone and of tone-relations, in the form of visual images. 
In order to express our ideas we must be able to paint. We 
must have practice in painting and a great deal of it. I 
propose to describe this practice in tones and tone-relations: 
what it ought to be, what forms it should take. 

PIGMENT-MATERIALS 

127. Of pigments I use these: Blue Black, Madder Lake 
(Deep), Rose Madder, Indian Red, Venetian Red, Vermil- 
ion, Burnt Sienna, Cadmium Orange, Yellow Ochre, Pale 
Cadmium, Aureolin, Cremnitz White, "Emeraude" Green 
(Green Oxide of Chromium, transparent), Cobalt Blue, 
French Ultramarine Blue. These are the pigments which I 
suggest for oil-painting. In water-color painting I should sub- 
stitute Charcoal Gray for Blue Black. "Emeraude Green" 
is often called Viridian in the form in which it is used in water- 
color. For Cremnitz White I should substitute, in water-color 
painting, Chinese White. These are the pigment-materials 
which I use myself and recommend to others. There are, of 
course, many other pigments which may be used, but these 
will, I think, be found sufficient for all purposes. Provided 
with these pigments, with a palette upon which to put them, 
with brushes and other materials necessary for painting, we 
are prepared to take up the study of tones and tone-relations. 

THE SCALE OF VALUES 

128. It is evident that we have in black paint the least 
quantity of light which we can produce. Black is the lowest of 
all values. It is equally evident that in white paint we have the 
greatest possible quantity of light. White is the highest of all 
values. Mixing Black and White in different proportions we 
can produce an indefinite number of intermediates. We do 



134 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

not want, however, to be indefinite in our terms; on the con- 
trary we want to be as definite as possible. Let us, therefore, 
establish, between Black and White, a Middle Value (M); 
between Black and Middle Value an intermediate Dark (D) ; 
between Middle Value and White an intermediate Light (Lt), 
and between these five values the intermediates, Low Dark 
(LD), High Dark (HD), Low Light (LLt), and High Light 
(HLt). Further intermediates (eight) may be established, but 
to these we need not give any particular names. If we have 
occasion to refer to any one of them we can say that it lies 
between certain quantities or values of light for which we have 
names. We can speak, for example, of the intermediate be- 
tween Middle and High Dark, and it may be described in 
writing by the formula M-IID. With this terminology we shall 
be able to describe the principal quantities or values of light 
both in speech and in writing. 

In order to study the principal quantities or values of light 
and the possibilities of contrast which they afford it is wise to 
avoid all differences of color and color-intensity. To do that 
we produce our Scale of Values in terms of perfect neutrality, 
in which no color can be distinguished. When we use the 
names of different values it is understood that they are values 
of Neutrality. The term M, for example, stands for Neutral 
Middle, D for Neutral Dark, Lt for Neutral Light. 

CONTRASTS OF THE SCALE OF VALUES 

129. Having produced a scale of nine neutral values, in- 
cluding White and Black, the question arises as to the number 
of contrasts which it affords, and it is easy to see that the num- 
ber is thirty-six. 

The vertical lines in the following diagram indicate the pos- 
sible contrasts of value in the Scale of Values. Counting the 
lines, we see that the number of contrasts is thirty-six. Pro- 
ducing these contrasts, we shall see what each one amounts to. 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 



135 



vv 

HIT 




C 




L\I 




M 




HD 




o 1 




LD 




61k 





Diagram 1 



DEFINITION OF VALUE-RELATIONS 

130. The best method of describing and distinguishing 
these value-contrasts will be to use the value-names in a form 

of fractions. For example, would mean a contrast of Dark 

on Light, would mean a contrast of Light on Dark, 

would mean a contrast of Black on White. That is to say, 
White is subdivided or crossed by Black. When we wish to 
describe several contrasts in combination, we set the value 
of the ground-tone above the line, always, the value of the 
tone or tones put upon it below, thus : - 

Lt 



Wt 



Blk 



This formula means, spots of White and Black on a ground of 
Light. 



136 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Lt 

Wt Blk 

M 

This formula means spots of White and Black on a ground- 
tone of Light, with a spot of Middle on the White, the Middle 
being altogether separated from the Light by the White. 

There is no definite thinking except in definite terms, and 
without some such terminology as I have devised and de- 
scribed, it will be impossible to enter upon an experimental 
practice in value-relations with the hope of definite results. 
With definite terms, however, we can take up the practice in 
value-relations with a good chance of learning, in the course 
of time, all that there is to be learned. 

SCALES OF COLORS IN DIFFERENT VALUES 

131. We must now proceed to the consideration of the 
qualities of light beyond the Scale of Neutral Values, in the 
region of colors and color-intensities, a region of tones 
which we have not yet explored. 

It is evident that no color can exist either in the value of 
Black or in the value of White, but in every other value we 
have the possibility of all colors. That is to say, we may have 
Red (R) or Orange (O) or Yellow (Y) or Green (G) or Blue 
(B) or Violet (V) or any of the colors lying intermediate be- 
tween them, Red Orange (RO), Orange Yellow (OY), 
Yellow Green (YG), Green Blue (GB), Blue Violet (BV), 
or Violet Red (VR) : all these, in any value of the Scale of 
Values, except in the value of Black and in the value of 
White. The possibilities of value and color, in tones, are 
exhibited in the following diagram : 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 137 

DIAGRAM OF VALUES AND COLORS 
Wt Wt 

HLt R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR HLt 

Lt R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR Lt 

LLt R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR LLt 

M R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR M 

HD R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR HD 

D R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR D 

LD R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR LD 

Blk Blk 

Diagram 2 

DEFINITION OF THE COLOR-TERMS 

132. It is important that the words which we use for the 
different colors should be well understood, that in using them 
we use them with the same meanings. By Red I mean the only 
positive color which shows no element either of Yellow or of 
Blue. It is the color which we often describe by the word crim- 
son, and we produce it by the mixture of Rose Madder and 
Vermilion. By Yellow I mean the only positive color which 
shows no element either of Red or Blue. It is the color of the 
primrose which may be produced by the pigment Aureolin. By 
Blue I mean the only positive color which shows no element 
either of Yellow or of Red. Blue is seen in a clear sky after 
rain and in the pigment Cobalt. By Orange I mean a positive 
color showing equal elements of Red and of Yellow. By Green 
I mean a positive color showing equal elements of Yellow 
and of Blue. By Violet I mean a positive color showing equal 
elements of Blue and Red. The character of the intermediates 
is clearly indicated by their several names. In each one we 
see the adjacents in equal measures. This definition of the 



138 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

colors is only approximate. It does not pretend to be scien- 
tific, but it may help to bring us to a common understanding. 
To carry these definitions farther, I should have to produce 
examples. This I can do in my class-room, producing each 
color according to my idea, exactly. I might reach the same 
result approximately by color-printing, but the result would 
not, probably, be permanent. The samples produced by 
hand, for use in the class-room, can be reproduced from 
time to time when they no longer answer to the ideas which 
they are intended to express. In this treatise I shall use a 
terminology instead of colored illustrations which would not 
be satisfactory, or, if satisfactory, not so permanently. 

COLOR-INTENSITIES IN DIFFERENT VALUES 

133. If we proceed to carry out the idea of Diagram 2, 
producing all the twelve colors in all of the seven values inter- 
mediate between the extremes of Black and White, making the 
colors, in every case, as strong, as intense, as is possible with 
the pigment-materials we have chosen to use, we shall dis- 
cover that the twelve colors reach their greatest intensities 
in different values; that is to say, in different quantities of 
light. Red reaches its greatest intensity in the value High 
Dark, Orange in Low Light, Yellow in High Light, Green in 
Low Light, Blue in High Dark, Violet in Low Dark, approxi- 
mately; and the intermediate colors reach their greatest in- 
tensities in the intermediate values, approximately. In order 
to indicate this fact in our diagram, we will mark the positions 
of greatest intensity by putting the color signs in larger type. 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 139 

DIAGRAM OF VALUES, COLORS, AND COLOR-INTENSITIES 

Wt 
HLt R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR HL 

Lt R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR Lt 

LLt R RO O OY Y YG G Gb B BV V VR LLt 

M R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR M 

HD R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR HD 

D R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR D 

LD R RO O OY Y YG G GB B BV V VR LD 

Blk Blk 

Diagram 3 

TONES OF THE SPECTKUM AND OF PIGMENTS 

134. It is probable that we have in the Spectrum an in- 
dication of the natural value-relations of the different colors 
when in their highest intensities. Owing to the limitations 
of pigment-material, however, it is impossible to reproduce 
the intensities of the Spectrum satisfactorily. An approxi- 
mation is all that we can achieve in painting. 

THE SPECTRUM SEQUENCE AND THE CIRCUIT OF THE COLORS 

135. Having produced the scale of twelve colors in the 
values of their greatest intensities, and as intense as pos- 
sible, we get an approximation to the Spectrum with this 
difference, that the color Violet-Red (Purple) which we get 
in pigments and mixtures of pigments does not occur in 
the Spectrum and, so far as we know, does not belong in the 
Spectrum. We have in the Spectrum a sequence which be- 
gins with Red and ends with Violet. It is a sequence, not a 
circuit. In pigment-mixtures, however, we have a circuit, 



140 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

clearly enough, and Violet-Red is a connecting link between 
Violet and Red. 

THE COMPLEMENTARIES 

136. Considering the circuit of the colors which we are 
able to produce with our pigment-materials, the question 
arises, What contrasts of color are the strongest? what 
interval in the Scale of Colors gives us the strongest possible 
color-contrast? Producing the twelve colors in the values 
of their greatest intensities, and as intense as possible, and 
setting the tones in a circuit and in their natural and inevi- 
table order, you will observe that the greatest color-contrast 
is the contrast between colors at the interval of the seventh: 
for example, the contrasts of Red and Green, or Orange and 
Blue, or Yellow and Violet. The colors at the interval of the 
sixth are less strong in contrast. The contrast diminishes 
gradually as we pass from the interval of the seventh to the 
interval of the second. The contrast of colors at the interval 
of the seventh, the greatest possible contrast, is called the 
contrast of the complementaries. In estimating intervals we 
count the colors between which the intervals occur. 

A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF TONES 

137. Taking each color in the value of its greatest inten- 
sity (as shown in the Spectrum), and as intense as possible, 
the color may be neutralized in the direction of Black (neutral 
darkness) or White (neutral light) or in the direction of any 
value of neutrality intermediate between Black and White, 
including the value of the color in its greatest intensity. If 
we think of five degrees of neutralization, including the ex- 
tremes of Intensity and Neutrality, we shall get as definite 
a terminology for color-intensities and color-neutralizations 
as we have for colors and for values. The choice of five de- 
grees is arbitrary. It is a question how far the classification 
shall go, what it shall include. We are dealing with infinity, 
and our limitations are necessarily arbitrary. 



TONES AND TONE-RELATIONS 141 

In Diagram 4 we have a general classification of tones as 
to value, color, color-intensity, and color-neutralization. Of 
values we have nine. Of colors we have twelve. Of degrees 
of intensity and of neutralization we have five. 

COLOR-INTENSITIES AND COLOR-NEUTRALIZATIONS 

138. It is important to distinguish between degrees of 
intensity and degrees of neutralization. The degrees of color- 
intensity and of color-neutralization, in any value, are de- 
scribed by fractions. The formula D-Rf means, value Dark, 
color Red, intensity three quarters. The formula D-R, |N 
means, value Dark, color Red, three quarters neutralized. 
The formula M-OJ means, value Middle, color Orange, in- 
tensity one half. The formula M-O, JN means, value Middle, 
color Orange, half neutralized. M-O, N is a tone somewhat 
less intense in color than M-OJ, as may be seen on the 
diagram. The degree of neutralization has reference, in all 
cases, to the maximum intensity for the given value. What 
that is, theoretically, may be seen by referring to the triangle 
of the color, in which the possibilities of intensity, in differ- 
ent values, are clearly indicated. 

THE DEFINITION OF PARTICULAR TONES 

139. To define any tone, in this classification, we must 
name its value, its color, and the degree of color-intensity 
or neutralization. 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF TONES NECESSARILY THEORETICAL 

140. The general classification of tones in which is shown 
all the possibilities of value, color, color-intensity, and color- 
neutralization, in reflecting pigments, is necessarily theoreti- 
cal, or rather ideal, because the degrees of intensity obtainable 
in any value depend upon the pigment-materials we have 
to use, or choose to use. No very great intensity of Yellow, 
even in the value of High Light, can be obtained if we 
choose to use a mixture of Yellow Ochre with Ultramarine 



142 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Blue and White to produce it. It is only when we use the 
most brilliant pigments the Madders, Vermilion, the Cad- 
miums, Aureolin, and Cobalt Blue that we can approxi- 
mate toward the highest intensities, as indicated in our 
diagram and exhibited in the Spectrum. 

THE DEFINITION OF PARTICULAR TONE-RELATIONS 

141. The number of tone-contrasts contrasts of value, 
of color, and of color-intensity or neutralization -is, evi- 
dently, beyond calculation. 

The method of describing any particular contrast or con- 
trasts is easy to understand. We have only to define the tones 
and to indicate how they cross one another. 

RO. N 



VR 



This formula means that a spot of Violet-Red (Dark, full 
intensity) is put on a ground-tone of Middle Red-Orange, 
half neutralized. 



VR Wt 
YG 

This formula means that spots of Low Dark Violet-Red (full 
intensity) and White are put on a ground-tone of Middle 
Red-Orange, half intensity, and that on the spot of Low 
Dark Violet-Red (full intensity), as a ground-tone, is put a 
spot of Light Yellow-Green (full intensity). It is not neces- 
sary to name the value when the color occurs in the value 
of its greatest intensity, and it is not necessary to describe 
the intensity, in any value, when the greatest intensity pos- 
sible to that value is meant. In the first case the value is 
understood, in the second case the intensity the greatest 
for the value is understood. 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 

142. WHEN, in view of all possible tones, as indicated in 
the general classification of tones, according to value, color, 
and color-intensity, or color-neutralization (Diagram of the 
Triangles), we try to think what tones we shall use, what 
contrasts of tone we shall produce, we are sure to be very 
much "at sea," because of the great number and variety of 
possibilities. Even when we disregard differences of intensity 
and consider simply the possibilities of value and of color, 
as shown in the general classification of tones according to 
value and color (Diagram of Values and Colors, p. 137), we 
have still too many possibilities to consider, and our choice 
of tones is determined by accident or habit rather than by 
clear vision or deliberate preference. We shall find it worth 
while to limit our range in each experiment to some partic- 
ular sequence of values and colors, or to some particular 
combination of sequences. Instead of trying to think in the 
range of all values, all colors, we ought to limit our thinking, 
in each case, to the range of a few values and a few colors, - 
a few definite tones with which we can become perfectly famil- 
iar and of which we can have definite visual images. It is 
only when we can imagine tones vividly that we can think 
satisfactorily in tone- relations. We shall achieve this power 
of thinking in tones and tone-relations best through self- 
imposed limitations. 

143. We ought to begin our study of Tones and Tone- 
Relations with the Scale of Neutral Values (see p. 135). We 
ought to work with the nine tones of this scale or sequence 
until we know them well, until we can visualize them clearly, 
and until we can produce them accurately; until we can 
readily produce any single tone of the scale and any of the 
thirty-six possible contrasts which the scale affords. 



144 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Besides the Scale of Neutral Values there are three types of 
Value and Color Sequence which we may use. 

144. First. We have the sequences which may be described 
as those of the Vertical ; sequences which may be indicated by 
vertical lines drawn across the Diagram of Values and Colors. 
In each of these sequences, twelve in number, we have one 
color in all the values of the Scale of Values, except Black and 
White. These sequences of the Vertical, as I shall call them, 
are of very little use in Pure Design. They give us value-con- 
trasts and contrasts of color-intensity (intensities of one color), 
but no color-contrasts, no differences of color. The tones in 
these sequences are monotonous in color. 

145. Second. We have the sequences which may be de- 
scribed as those of the Horizontal; sequences which may be 
indicated by horizontal lines drawn across the Diagram of 
Values and Colors. In these sequences we have differences 
of color and color-intensity, but all in one value. These 
sequences give us color-contrasts (different colors in different 
degrees of intensity), but no value-contrasts. The tones in 
these sequences are monotonous in value. The sequences of 
one horizontal are of very little use. 

146. Third. We have the sequences which may be de- 
scribed as those of the Diagonal; sequences which may be 
indicated by lines drawn diagonally across the Diagram of 
Values and Colors. In drawing these sequences the reader 
must not forget that the Scale of Colors is a circuit, so when 
he reaches the end of the diagram he returns and continues 
from the other end. The diagram might, for convenience in 
drawing these sequences, be extended to several repetitions 
of the Scale of Colors. In the sequences of the Diagonal we 
have contrasts both of value and of color. The color in these 
sequences changes from value to value through the Scale of 
Values. Each sequence gives us certain colors in certain 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 145 

values, and in no case have we two colors in the same value. 
To these sequences of the Diagonal we must give our particu- 
lar attention. They are the sequences which we shall use 
constantly, in Representation as well as in the practice of 
Pure Design. 

147. The sequences of the Diagonal fall into two divisions. 
First, there are the sequences which we draw through the Dia- 
gram of Values and Colors from Black up-to-the-right to 
White. I shall call these the Sequences of the Right Mode 
(Sign 12). Second, there are the sequences which we draw 
from Black up-to-the-left to White. I shall call these the 
Sequences of the Left Mode (Sign 133) . 

Taking the lowest color in the sequence as the keynote, we 
have for the Right Mode, in the Scale of Twelve Colors, twelve 
distinct sequences of which this which follows is. an example. 

Seq. LD-BV, IZ1 2ds 

Wt 

HLt OY 

Lt O 

LLt - RO 

M R 

HD VR 

D V 

LD BV 

Blk 

In this sequence the colors are taken at the interval of the 
second. That is what is meant by the abbreviation 2ds. 

Taking the lowest color of the sequence as its keynote, as 
before, we have for the Left Mode twelve distinct sequences, 
of which that which follows is an example. 



146 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Seq. LD-OY, S3 2ds 

Wt 

HLt BV 

Lt - V 

LLt VR 

M - R 

HD RO 

D - O 

LD OY 

Blk 

In this sequence, as in the one previously given, the colors 
are taken at the interval of the second. 

148. The colors in these diagonal sequences may be taken 
not only at intervals of the second, but at intervals of the third, 
the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, and the seventh. Taking the 
colors at these different intervals we have, for each interval, 
twenty-four distinct sequences; twelve for the Right Mode, 
twelve for the Left Mode; in all one hundred and forty-four 
different sequences. 

149. Among the sequences of the Diagonal those in which 
the colors are taken at the interval of the fifth are particularly 
interesting. The colors taken at the interval of the fifth fall 
into four triads, the first, R-Y-B, the second, RO-YG-BV, 
the third, O-G-V, the fourth, OY-GB-VR. Taking the 
colors in any of these triads in the two modes, the Right and 
the Left, we get six sequences of different colors in different 
values for each triad. Of these Triad-Sequences I will give 
one as an example. 

Seq. LD-R, ISI 5ths 

Wt 

HLt R 

Lt - Y 

LLt - B 

M - R 

HD Y 

D - B 

LD-R 

Blk 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 147 

The Triad-Scales, whether in the Right Mode or in the Left 
Mode, are of great interest both in Pure Design and in Re- 
presentation. In Representation, however, the number of 
tones between the limits of Black and White would, as a rule, 
be increased, as in the extended diagram given farther on. 

150. Instead of taking the colors at a certain interval in one 
mode or the other, it is possible to take the colors in a certain 
relation of intervals repeated; this in either mode. The re- 
lation of a third to a fifth, for instance, being repeated, in 
one mode or the other, gives us some very interesting se- 
quences. The one which follows is an example. 

LD-V, IZ1 5th-3d 

Wt 
HLt - Y 

3d 
Lt - O 

5th 
LLt - V 

3d 
M - B 

5th 
HD - Y 

3d 
D O 

5th 

LD V 

Blk 

The relation of a seventh followed by two fifths, when 
repeated, in either mode, gives a large number of sequences 
of very great interest, particularly for Representation. 

151. Any two of the sequences which I have described as 
those of the Vertical, or more than two, may be combined and 
used together. In that case we have two or more colors to a 
value. The monotony which is inevitable in any single ver- 
tical sequence is avoided in the combination of two or more 
such sequences. 



148 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



Seq. E 


and Seq. Y 




Wt 


R 


HLt Y 


R 


Lt Y 


R 


LLt Y 


R 


M Y 


R 


HD Y 


R 


D Y 


R 


LD Y 




Blk 



This is an example of the combination of two vertical 
sequences the sequence of Red and the sequence of Yel- 
low. I have not found the sequences of this type very inter- 
esting. In using them in Representation I have found it 
desirable to have the intensities increase gradually toward 
white, or, what amounts to the same thing, to have each 
color neutralized as it loses light. That happens, constantly, 
in Nature. 

152. Any two of the sequences which I have described 
as of the Horizontal, or even more than two, may be com- 
bined and used together. 

Seq. Lt and D, 3ds 

Lt R O Y G B V 
D R O Y G B V 

This scale gives us a variety of color-contrasts with one value- 
contrast. The colors are taken at the interval of the third. 
They might be taken at any interval up to that of the seventh, 
in which case we should have a contrast of complementary 
colors in two values, each color occurring in each value. 
The monotony of value which is inevitable in any single hori- 
zontal sequence is in the combination of two or more such 
sequences avoided. I have used the Red- Yellow-Blue triad 
in three and in five values with satisfaction. Each value re- 
presents a plane of light in which certain differences of color 
are observed. 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 149 

153. Any two of the sequences which I have described as 
of the Diagonal may be combined, in two ways. First, two 
sequences of the same mode may be combined. Second, two 
sequences of different modes, one of the Right Mode and one 
of the Left Mode, may be combined. 

LD-GB S 3ds with LD-RO S 3ds 



33ds 

GB 
BV 
VR 
RO 
OY 
YG 
GB 


with LD-RO 

Wt 
HLt RO 
Lt OY 
LLt YG 
M GB 
HD BV 
D VR 
LD RO 
Blk 



In this case we have a combination of two diagonal sequences 
of the Left Mode in which the colors are taken at the interval 
of the third. Changing the mode of these two sequences we 
get them inverted, thus : - 

LD-GB !ZJ LD-RO IZi 3ds 





Wt 




GB 


HLt 


RO 


YG 


Lt 


VR 


OY 


LLt 


BV 


RO 


M 


GB 


VR 


HD 


YG 


BV 


D 


OY 


GB 


LD 


RO 




Blk 





Here the mode is changed and the combined sequences in- 
verted. The combined sequences may be both in the same 
mode or in different modes. When the modes are different 
the sequences come into contact, and in some cases cross 
one another. 



150 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 



LD-V IZJ 2ds with LD-V S 2ds 

Wt 
Y 

OY YG 

O G 

RO GB 

R B 

VR BV 

V 

Blk 

In this case we have a combination of two diagonal sequences. 
One of the sequences is in the Right, the other is in the 
Left Mode. The colors are in the values of their greatest 
intensities. 

Seq. LD-GB IZI 3ds with LD-GB S 3ds 

Wt 

GB 

YG BV 
OY VR 

RO 

VR OY 
BV YG 

GB 

Blk 

In this case the combined sequences cross one another in the 
tone of M-RO. The combined sequences have three tones 
in common. It may happen that the sequences combined will 
have no tones in common. This is shown in the sequence 
which follows : 

LD-O 1 



5ths 


with LD-B 1Z1 5ths 




Wt 




O 


HLt 


B 


G 


Lt 


Y 


V 


LLt 


R 


O 


M 


B 


G 


HD 


Y 


V 


D 


R 


O 


LD 


B 




Blk 





SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 151 

154. Instead of having two colors to a value in the combina- 
tion of two vertical sequences, we may have an alternation of 
colors in the values, giving one color to a value, thus : 

Wt 
R HLt 

Lt Y 
R LLt 

M Y 
R HD 

D Y 
R LD 

Blk 

It has seemed to me that the sequences in which we have 
one color to a value give better results than those in which we 
have two or more colors to a value. 

155. Instead of having each color in two values in the com- 
bination of two horizontal sequences, we may have the colors, 
taken at equal intervals, occurring alternately first in one value 
and then in the other. 

Lt R . Y . B 

D . O . G . V 

156. These alternating sequences may proceed, not only 
vertically and horizontally, but diagonally across the diagram. 
In that case the alternations will be between different value- 
intervals in a series of equal color-intervals or between differ- 
ent color-intervals in a series of equal value-intervals. 

Wt 

HLt VR 

Lt BV 

LLt GB V 

M YG B 

HD OY G 

D Y 

LD O 
Blk 

In this case the alternation is between different value-intervals 
through the Scale of Colors. The movement being, as a 



152 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

whole, up- to-the- right, is in the Right Mode. I have not used 
any of the sequences, of this type, in which the value-intervals 
alternate, first in one mode then in the other, with a constant 
color-interval, but I have used, frequently, the alternation of 
two different color- intervals in a series of equal value-intervals. 
The sequences produced in this way are among the most inter- 
esting of all the many I have used. I will give several examples. 

Wt 
HLt Y 

7th 
Lt V 

5th 
LLt O 

7th 
M B 

5th 
HD R 

7th 
D G 

5th 

LD V 
BIk 

In this case the alternation is from the keynote, Low Dark 
Violet, up first in the Left Mode a fifth, then up in the Right 
Mode a seventh, then in the Left Mode a fifth, and so on up to 
White. This particular alternation might be described as the 
relation of a fifth and a seventh repeated, in the Left Mode. 

Wt 
HLt Y 

7th 
Lt V 

5th 
LLt G 

7th 
M R 

5th 
HD B 

7th 
D O 

5th 

LD V 
Blk 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 



153 



In the sequence just given the alternation is, from the key- 
note Low Dark Violet, first in the Right Mode a fifth, then 
in the Left Mode a seventh : this through the Scale of Values 
up to White. The order of the previous sequence is inverted. 
This particular alternation might be described as the relation 
of a fifth and seventh repeated in the Right Mode. 

The alternation of intervals of the fifth with intervals of 
the third gives some interesting sequences, in which the alter- 
nation of intervals is, necessarily, an alternation of modes. 





Wt 




HLt 


Y 








3d 


Lt 


G 








5th 


LLt 











3d 


M 


Y 








5th 


HD 


R 








3d 


D 


O 








5th 


LD 


V 






Blk 





157. I have by no means exhausted the possibilities of 
value and color combination, but I have indicated a sufficient 
number to serve the purposes of experimental practice in tone- 
relations, for a long time to come. The sequences which I have 
found most interesting, in my own experiments, have been the 
diagonal sequences of the two modes, using intervals of the 
fifth, and the diagonal sequences in which with equal value- 
intervals there is an alternation of certain color-intervals, 
the seventh and the fifth, and the seventh and two fifths. It 
may very well be that these particular sequences interest me 
because I have used them more than others and consequently 
think in them more easily. 

158. For the purposes of Pure Design the Scale of Nine 
Values, including Black and White, will be found sufficient; 



154 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

but when it comes to the combination of Design with Repre- 
sentation, and particularly to Representation in Full Relief, 
it will be necessary to introduce intermediates into the Scale of 
Values. With this purpose in view I give one more diagram 
in which intermediates of value have been introduced. For 
convenience in drawing out the different sequences upon this 
diagram I have repeated the Scale of Colors showing the 
connection of Violet-Red with Red. This diagram (5) is 
simply an extension of the Diagram of Values and Colors 
given on p. 137. 

159. We may use the various sequences I have described 
without mixing the tones, using the tones one at a time as they 
may be required; but if we choose we may mix adjacents or 
thirds or even threes. In that way the tone- possibilities of each 
sequence may be very much extended. It may be well to show 
what the extension amounts to by giving one of the sequences 
with an indication of the result of mixtures within the limits 
described. 

Seq. LD-R SSths 

Wt 

HLt R 

Lt Y 

LLt B 

M R 

HD Y 

D B 

LD R 

Blk 

This is the sequence in which we decide to mix adjacents, 
thirds, and threes. 



VVt 

R RO O OY Y YG 

HLt R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

Lt R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

LLt R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

M R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

HD R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

D R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

LD R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 
Blk 



A DIAGRAM OF V 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR 

Di 



JJES AND COLORS 

R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

* RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

R RO O OY Y YG 

RO O OY Y YG 

I RO O OY Y YG 

I RO O OY Y YG 

I RO O OY Y YG 

I RO O OY Y YG 

I RO O OY Y YG 

! RO O OY Y YG 



Wt 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR HLt 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR Lt 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR LLt 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR M 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR HD 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR D 

G GB B BV V VR 

G GB B BV V VR LD 

G GB B BV V VR 

Blk 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 155 

2ds 3ds 3s 



Wt 
HLt 
Lt 
LLt 

M 
HD 
D 


R 
Y 
B 
R 
Y 
B 


O 
G 
V 
O 
G 
V 


V 
O 
G 
V 
O 


N 
N 
N 
N 
N 



LD R 
Blk 

This diagram shows the results of mixing seconds, thirds, and 
threes. It is evident that in mixing the tones of any sequence 
in this way we go beyond the strict limitations of the sequence, 
particularly in mixing thirds and threes. The results obtained 
are fairly definite, however, and the tones obtainable are still 
within the range of definite thinking. If we should go farther, 
to the mixture of tones beyond the interval of the third, we 
should get into the region of indefinite possibilities. 

160. It must be clearly understood that our object in using 
these sequences and more or less restricted mixtures is to limit 
our thinking so that it may gain in definiteness what it loses 
in extent. When we limit our thinking in any case to a few 
tones, certain colors in certain values, we come to know 
those tones so well that we can imagine any one of them 
vividly, without seeing it. It is only when we have in mind 
definite tone-images that we begin to think in tone-relations 
and rise to the possibilities of imaginative composition in 
tones. 

In using the sequences which I have described the tones 
must be carefully mixed and prepared upon the palette and 
set there in the order of the sequence, whatever it is. That 



156 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

gives the painter certain colors in certain values. That is to 
say, he has a certain number of tones to consider and to use. 
He takes one of the tones into his brush and gives it a position, 
a measure, and a shape. That done, he takes another tone 
and gives to that a position, measure, and shape. Proceeding 
in this way he creates a certain relationship of tones, posi- 
tions, measures, and shapes, the terms of which relationship 
are perfectly definite. He repeats what he finds satisfactory. 
He avoids what he finds unsatisfactory. Experimenting in 
this way, in such definite terms, he ought to make a sure 
and steady progress toward the discovery of what is orderly 
and beautiful. The use of any particular sequence of values 
and colors is like the use, by the musician, of a well-tuned 
instrument. It is at once a definition of terms and a source 
of suggestion and of inspiration. 

There is nothing occult or sacred about these sequences and 
combinations of sequences. In using them we are in no way 
safeguarded against error. Using these sequences, we can 
produce bad effects of light and of color as well as good ones. 
Whether the results of using these sequences are good or bad 
depends upon the user what his thinking amounts to. It will 
be a grave mistake to regard any of these sequences as recipes 
for righteousness, when they are simply modes of thought. 
They are nothing more than the sections or divisions of a 
general classification of tones. In using any particular se- 
quence we observe that the same value and color-relations 
recur repeatedly. That is always desirable from the point of 
view of Design. It means Harmony. 

161. The beauty of any scheme of values and colors de- 
pends, not only upon the pigment-materials used, upon the 
sequence of values and colors chosen and upon the particular 
tones produced, but quite as much upon the relative posi- 
tions and juxtapositions given to the tones, the quantities or 
measures in which they are used, and, lastly, the way in 
which the paint is handled. To find out what tones to use 



SEQUENCES OF VALUES AND COLORS 157 

as ground-tones, what tones to put upon these ground-tones, 
and in what quantities or measures, is a matter of experi- 
mental practice and of visual and imaginative discrimination. 

Having defined the word tone and its elements, value, 
color, and color-intensity, and having established a general 
classification of tones to show the possibilities of tone, I 
must go on to describe what will be orderly in tone-relations. 
Order and Beauty in tone-relations will be found in Tone- 
Harmonies, Tone-Balances, and Tone-Rhythms. 



TONE-HARMONY 

162. BY Tone-Harmony I mean a relation of likeness in 
tones. Tones are in Harmony when they resemble one another 
in all or in certain respects. To be in Harmony two or more 
tones must have at least something in common, either value 
or color. If they have the same color they may be in the same 
degree of intensity, giving a Harmony of Intensities. Tone- 
Harmony resolves itself into Value-Harmony, Color-Har- 
mony, and the Harmony of Intensities. The Harmony of 
Intensities lies between tones of the same color, when they are 
equally neutralized or neutralized in approximately the same 
degree. When different colors are neutralized w r e have the 
Harmony of a common neutrality or grayness of color. 

163. Tones may be harmonized on the palette before they 
are used, that is to say, before any positions, measures, and 
shapes are given to them on paper or canvas, or they may be 
harmonized after positions, measures, and shapes have been 
given to them. To harmonize tones on the palette, as to value, 
we must bring them approximately to the same value, with as 
little change of color as possible. To harmonize tones on the 
palette as to color we must bring them approximately to the 
same color, with as little change of value as possible. If two 
or more tones have the same color they may be intensified or 
neutralized until they are brought approximately to the same 
degree of intensity. The tones of Red showing a Harmony 
of Intensities would lie on a vertical line drawn through the 
triangle of Red in the Diagram of the Triangles. 

As the tone-effect which we produce depends very largely 
upon the positions, measures, and shapes which we give to 
our tones, we may not be satisfied with an effect which has 
been produced with previously prepared and harmonized 



TONE-HARMONY 



159 



tones. We may wish to change the effect, to achieve a still 
greater Harmony. Given a certain arrangement or composi- 
tion of tones, certain tones in certain positions, measures, and 
shapes, and given the problem to harmonize those tones, 
what do we do ? 



164. Suppose it is Value-Harmony which we want; what 
is our procedure? 

Wt 

HLt B 

Lt V 

LLt 



M 
HD 

D 
LD 



- Y 

- RO 
G 
O 

- VR 



Blk 



Here, let us say, are the tones of a design, certain colors in 
certain values. What shall we do with these tones to bring 
them into Value-Harmony ? 




Diagram 6 

For Value-Harmony we must diminish the range of values 
toward one value. In the above diagram I have shown a 
diminution of the range of values toward High Light: this 
in several degrees. 



160 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Blk 



Diagram 7 



Following the indications of this diagram, we pull the colors 
together toward Light in one case (B), toward Middle in 
another (A), toward Dark in a third (C). As we do this we 
increase the Value-Harmony. In reproducing the tones in a 
diminished range of values, raising the colors in value or low- 
ering them, we are not obliged to change the colors except in 
cases where they become, possibly, confounded with Black 
or with White. It will often happen, however, that the inten- 
sity of a color has to be diminished when the value is changed. 
For example, if Red Orange, in the illustration given, is in its 
greatest intensity, the color may remain unchanged in System 
"A," but its intensity will be, necessarily, diminished in 
System "B," or System "C." See Diagram of the Triangles. 
For the sake of Value-Harmony we diminish the range of 
values, making as little changes of color as possible, and only 
those changes of color-intensity which are inevitable. A com- 
plete and perfect Value-Harmony is, as a rule, undesirable 
because it means that all the colors are reduced to one value 
which gives a monotony of value. Approximate Harmony of 
Values is generally sufficient. The range of values is narrowed, 
the contrasts are diminished, and an even tonality is secured. 
That is all we require, in most cases, an approximation to one 
value. 



TONE-HARMONY 161 

165. Suppose it is Color-Harmony which we want to 
achieve: what procedure shall we follow? 

Wt 
B 
V 
Y 
R 
G 
O 
Blk 

Here are certain tones, certain colors in certain values. What 
shall we do with these tones to get Color-Harmony ? We must 
diminish the range of color-contrasts by giving predominance 
to one color, either to one of the colors to be harmonized or 
to some other. That may be done by mixing one color into 
all our tones. 

Wt Wt 

B V 

V VR 

Y Giving predominance to Red, we get: O 

R R 

G N 

O RO 

Blk Blk 

Diagram 8 

The range of color-contrast is in this way diminished to the 
intervals between Violet, Orange, and Neutral. The process, 
so far as color is concerned, disregarding value-relations, 
is fully explained in the following diagram : 






162 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




B 



Suppose, instead of giving predominance to Red, as in the 
example above, we give predominance to Blue, taking the 
same range of colors. 



Wt 
B 
V 
Y 
R 
G 
O 
Blk 



Giving predominance to Blue we get: 



Diagram 10 



Wt 

B 
BV 

G 

V 
GB 

N 
Blk 



The range of color-contrast is in this way diminished to the 
intervals between Green, Violet, and Neutral. The process, 
so far as color is concerned, is fully explained in the following 
diagram : 



TONE-HARMONY 



163 




B 



In the diagrams which I have given the predominance is in 
the measure of one half. That is to say, the mixtures are half 
and half, theoretically speaking. The theoretical result is a 
range of intermediate colors. The predominance is not neces- 
sarily in the measure of one half. It may be in any measure. 
The presence of Red or Blue in all the tones may be hardly 
noticeable or it may amount to a general redness or blueness 
in which other colors are distinguished with more or less 
difficulty. 

166. Suppose it is the harmony of grayness, a Harmony of 
Neutralization, which we want. What is the procedure to 
follow? 



164 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Blk 

Diagram 12 

The procedure is shown in this diagram. We see here what 
is meant by a Harmony of Neutralization, without changes 
of value. The neutralization is in the measure of one half in 
each case. Red Orange and Green are the only colors which 
exist in their maximum intensities. Their intensities are di- 
minished to the half-point, without change of value, from 
RO to RO in one case, and from G to G in the other. 
The other colors are reduced in their intensities proportion- 
ally. The value in each case remains unchanged. 

167. Having considered the methods of getting Value- 
Harmony and Color-Harmony separately, I must now 
describe the method of getting the combination of Value- 
Harmony with the Harmony of Neutralization. To do this 
we must set the colors in positions regarding the Scale of 
Neutral Values, which will indicate their several values, and 
in each case the degree of intensity. We must then decide 



TONE-HARMONY 



165 



whether to neutralize the several tones toward Black or 
White, or toward some neutral value between these extremes. 




1 



Blk 

Diagram 13 

This illustrates the method of a neutralization toward Black 
in the measures of one quarter, one half, and three quarters. 






166 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




This illustrates the method of a neutralization toward White 
in the measures of one third and two thirds. 



TONE-HARMONY 



167 




B 



This illustrates the method of a neutralization toward the 
Middle Neutral, between Black and White, a neutralization 
in the measures of one quarter, one half, and three quarters. 
In bringing tones into harmony, by one or another or all 
of these various methods, we must remember that when we 
have diminished the contrast of value and of color beyond 
a certain point the result is monotony, a monotony which 
may be undesirable. It is easy to get into a state of mind in 
which we dislike all contrasts. In this state of mind we find 
no aesthetic satisfaction except in monotony. Such a state 
of mind should be avoided. Monotony is the Nirvana of 
sestheticism . 

168. We may have a Harmony in the repetition and recur- 
rence of two or more contrasting, even strongly contrasting, 
tones. We may have Harmony in the repetition and recur- 
rence of a contrast in which there is perhaps no Harmony. 



168 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

For example: I may repeat the contrast Orange-Blue any 
number of times in a certain composition. There is no Har- 
mony of Value or of Color in the contrast, but in repeating 
the contrast I have the Harmony of a Repetition, just as I 
have a Harmony in the repetition of a certain line or outline 
in which there is no order of any kind. The Harmony lies 
solely in the repetition or recurrence. In this way I may 
repeat, at equal intervals all over a certain space, the various 
contrasts indicated by the following diagram : 



G [ Blk 



L T -R 



M-B 



VR 



HD-BV 



Diagram 16 

There is no Harmony in the relation of tones here indicated, 
but we shall get Harmony in the repetition of this relation. 



TONE-HARMONY 



169 



o 







W 1 



Blk 



L T -R 



VR 



HD-BV 



Blk 



LT-R 



M-B 



HD-BV 







G Blk 



U-R 



M-B 



VR 



HD-BV 



Blk 



L T -K 



M-B 



VR 



HD-BV 











Blk 



C-R 



M6 



VR 



HD-BV 



Blk 



I7-R 



M-B 



VR 



HD-BV 



Diagram 17 

The Harmony here indicated will lie in the repetition of cer- 
tain contrasts in which there is no Harmony. 

The Harmony of a repeated contrast, or contrasts, is a very 
important form of Tone-Harmony. It means that a certain 
effect of light due to the juxtaposition or association of certain 
tones recurs repeatedly, let us say at equal or approximately 
equal intervals, all over a certain space. The result is sure 
to be harmonious, no matter how strong the tone-contrasts 
are in the group or series, provided that the repetitions are 
well within the range of vision so that they may be compared, 
and the recurrence of the same effect of light appreciated. 
We must not be too near to the arrangement, for in that case 
the contrasts of the repeated group will be more noticeable 
than the even tonality of the all-over repetition. Every even, 



170 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

all-over effect of light, no matter what the contrasts are 
which produce it, gives us the feeling of Harmony. 

169. In such compositions as the one indicated in Dia- 
gram 17 predominance may be given to one tone by having 
it recur in larger spots in each group or in a greater number 
of spots, two or more in each group. In this way, in a com- 
position of many colors in different values, predominance 
may be given to Middle Blue or Light Orange or Dark Blue- 
Violet, or any other particular tone. Predominance may be 
given to neutral gray of a certain value, by having it recur in 
larger spots or in numerous small spots. 

170. Neutral gray may be made to predominate in another 
way; by so composing the tones, in the group to be repeated, 
that they neutralize one another at a certain distance, the 
point of view of the observer. 



Y 


G 


Y 


G 


Y 


G 


R 


V 


R 


V 


R 


V 


Y 


& 


Y 


& 


Y 


& 


R 


V 


R 


V 


R 


V 



Diagram 18 

In this case Yellow and Violet will neutralize one another 
and Red will neutralize Green. The effect of the repetition 
of these complementary oppositions ought to be, at a certain 
distance, a very lively neutral. 

It has been the idea of certain painters of our time to sub- 
ject every tone-impression to analysis, and to produce the 
effect of the tone by an arrangement or composition of its 
elements. Many interesting and some beautiful results have 
been produced in this way. 






TONE-HARMONY 



171 



B 



R Y 



B 



B R Y 



I B I R I Y I B I R I 



R Y 



I B | R | Y | B | R 



l Y N"m 



B R 



B| R 



Diagram 19 

In this case we have a repetition of the triad Red- Yellow- 
Blue, which, at a certain distance, ought to produce the 
effect of a middle neutral. The principle of these arrange- 
ments is one of the most important in tone-composition. 

171. There is another consideration which ought to keep us 
from any morbid interest in harmonious monotonies, which 
ought to reconcile us to contrasts, even strong contrasts, and 
to a great variety in tones. Harmony is only one principle of 
composition in Design ; we have two others which are equally 
important, the principle of Balance and the principle of 
Rhythm. The principles of Balance and Rhythm are con- 
sistent with the greatest possible contrasts of tone. The tone- 
contrasts in forms of Balance and Rhythm may be strong, 
even harsh, and the appreciation and enjoyment of the 
Balance or of the Rhythm in no degree diminished. 

We will now proceed to the consideration of Tone-Balance 
and Tone-Rhythm. 



TONE-BALANCE 

172. TONES, simply as tones, disregarding the positions, 
measures, and shapes which may be given to them, balance, 
when the contrasts which they make with the ground-tone 
upon which they are placed are equal. We have an indication 
of such a balance of tones, simply as tones, in the following 
formula: - 

LD - V 

HLt Y HLt Y 

Two spots of High Light Yellow occur on a ground-tone of 
Low Dark Violet. The two spots of Yellow make equal con- 
trasts with the ground-tone, and for that reason balance as 
tones, no matter what positions, measures, and shapes are 
given to them. The value-contrast is that of the interval of the 
seventh in the Scale of Values; the color-contrast is that of 
the interval of the seventh in the Scale of Colors. We must 
assume that the intensities are so adjusted as not to disturb 
the balance. 

M _V 

Lt O DO 

In this case the values making the contrasts differ. The con- 
trasts are, nevertheless, equal because the value-intervals are 
equivalent intervals. The value difference between Light and 
Middle is equivalent to the value difference between Dark 
and Middle. Though the contrasting elements differ, the con- 
trasts are equal. In this case the contrasting colors are the 
same and the color-contrasts correspond. We must assume 
that the intensities are so adjusted as not to disturb the 
balance. 



TONE-BALANCE 173 

LD - V 



LLt - O LLt - G 

In this case the contrasting colors differ, but the contrasts are 
equal because the color-interval between Orange and Violet is 
the same as the color-interval between Green and Violet. In 
this case the value-contrasts correspond. We must assume 
here, as before, that there is no difference of color-intensity 
to disturb the balance. 

D - R 



HD - O LD - V 

In this case the two tones which balance on the ground-tone 
differ both in value and in color. They balance, nevertheless, 
because both the value and the color-contrasts are of the 
interval of the third. Again we must assume that there is no 
disparity of intensities to disturb the balance. 

173. The reader will find the Diagram of Values and Colors 
(No. 5) very useful in making calculations for tone-balances, 
so far as value-contrasts and color-contrasts are concerned, 
leaving out considerations of color-intensity. 

Taking any tone indicated on the Diagram as a ground- 
tone, any tones at equal distances in balancing directions will 
balance on that ground-tone. 



174 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Diagram 20 

The various types of tone-balance are shown in the above 
diagram. The tones which balance, one against the other, on 
the ground-tone of Blue-Violet, are the tones marked by the 
same number. 

The value and color-balances being achieved, the intensities 
may be adjusted, increased or diminished, until the balance 
is perfect. 

174. As you increase the color-intensity in any tone it 
attracts more attention, and unless you increase the intensity 
in the opposite tones there will be a disparity which will dis- 
turb your balance. When the intensity in any tone is too 
great, you can increase the color-contrast or the value-contrast 
of the opposite tones until the balance is achieved. 

175. Up to this point I have been speaking of Tone-Balance 
in the abstract, of Tone-Balance as such. I have spoken of 



TONE-BALANCE 175 

Tone-Balance as something apart from Position, Measure, and 
Shape-Balance, as if tones could balance without having any 
positions, measures, or shapes assigned to them. The fact is 
that a tone does not exist until you give it a position, a measure, 
and a shape. It follows that Tone-Balance is, in all cases, 
more or less complicated by considerations of position, mea- 
sure, and shape. 

176. The principle of balance being that equal attractions 
balance at equal distances and unequal attractions at dis- 
tances inversely proportional to them, it follows, that if the 
attraction of a tone is increased by quantity, the attraction 
of quantity may be balanced against the attraction of con- 
trast. The calculation of such balances may be made on the 
Diagram of Values and Colors. 






Diagram 21 

In this case, for example, we have the indication of a possible 
balance of two parts of Light Red and one part of Dark 
Green on a ground-tone of Middle Violet, the difference of 
contrast in one case making up for a difference of quantity 
and of contrasting edge in the other. 

177. So far as Tone-Balance depends upon positions, mea- 
sures, and shapes, the problem is the problem of Position, 
Measure, and Shape-Balance, which we have already con- 
sidered. 

Given certain tones in certain measures and shapes, the 
inversion of the measures and shapes involves an inversion of 
the tones, so we have a Tone-Balance as well as a Measure 
and Shape-Balance. The inversion in any case may be single 
or double. 



176 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 







G| Blk 


Bl 


< |G 






yyr 


U 








W 


-w 


Y 


Y 


L!-R 


M-B 


VR 


VR M-B 


HD- 


BV 




HD-BV 






Diagram 22 

In this case we have an instance of single inversion, which 
gives us a Symmetrical Balance, of tones, as well as of 
measures and shapes. 







W T 



Blk 



L T -R 



VR 



HD-BV 



AH-QH 



HA 



a-w 



d- A 1 



J\A 



Diagram 28 

In this case we have an instance of double inversion of tones, 
as well as of measures and shapes. 

178. The tones and tone-contrasts on one side of a center 
or axis are not necessarily the same as those on the other side. 
We may have a Tone-Balance in which very different tones 
and tone-contrasts are opposed to one another. This brings 
us to the consideration of Occult Balance in Tones, Measures, 
and Shapes. 

A balance of any tones and of any tone-contrasts, in any 



TONE-BALANCE 177 

measures and in any shapes, is obtained when the center of 
tone-attractions is unmistakably indicated, either by the sym- 
metrical character of the balance or by a symmetrical inclos- 
ure which will indicate the center. Given any combination 
of tones, measures, and shapes, and the problem to find the 
balance-center, how shall we solve the problem ? It cannot 
very well be done by reasoning. It must be done by visual 
feeling. The principle of Balance being clearly understood, 
rinding the center of any tone-contrasts is a matter of experi- 
mental practice in which those persons succeed best who are 
most sensitive to differences of tone, and who make the great- 
est effort to feel the centers and to indicate them accurately. 
Experience and practice are necessary in all cases. 




Fig. 228 

Here, within this circle, are the attractions to be balanced. 
The problem is to find the balance-center, and to indicate 
that center by a symmetrical inclosure which will bring the 
tones, measures, and shapes into a Balance. The center is 
here indicated by the circle. Whether it is correctly indi- 
cated is a matter of judgment in which there may be a differ- 



178 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

ence of opinion. There is a center somewhere upon which 
the attractions are balancing. The question is, where is it? 
The illustration which I have given is in the terms of the 
Scale of Neutral Values. Differences of color and color-inten- 
sity would complicate the problem, but would not in anyway 
affect the principle involved. I know of no more interesting 
problem or exercise than this : to achieve Tone-Balance where 
there is no Tone-Symmetry. 

179. It will sometimes happen, that a gradation of tones 
or measures will draw the eye in a certain direction, toward 
the greater contrast, while a larger mass or measure of tone, 
on the other side, will be holding it back. In such a case we 
may have a mass balancing a motion. 




Fig. 229 

In this case the eye is drawn along, by a gradation of values, 
to the right, toward the edge of greater contrast, away from 
a large dark mass of tone in which there is no movement. 
The tendency of the dark mass is to hold the eye at its 
center. The problem is -to find the balance-center between 
the motion and the mass. I have done this, and the balance- 
center is indicated by the symmetrical outline of the diagram. 

180. Some shapes hold the eye with peculiar force, and in 



TONE-BALANCE 



179 



such cases the attractions of tone or measure or shape on the 
other side have to be increased if we are to have a balance. 
Symmetrical shapes have a tendency to hold the eye at 
centers and on axes. Given certain attractions on the other 
side, we must be sure that they are sufficient to balance the 
force of the symmetry in addition to the force of its tone- 
contrasts, whatever they are. 






Fig. 230 

In this case we have an approximate balance in which the 
force of a symmetry, with contrasting edges, on one side, is 
balanced by contrasts and certain movements on the other. 
If I should turn down the upper spot on the right, we would 
feel a loss of balance due to the turning of two movements, 
which combine to make one movement to the right, into 
two movements down to the right. If I should increase the 
force of the symmetry, by filling in the center with black, it 
would be necessary either to move the symmetry nearer to the 
center or to move the opposite attractions away from it. An 
unstable attitude in the symmetry would have to be counter- 
acted, in some way, on the other side. 

Intricate shapes from which the eye cannot easily or 
quickly escape often hold the eye with a force which must 
be added to that of their tone-contrasts. 



180 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 




Fig. 231 

In this case the shape on the right requires a pretty strong 
dark spot to balance its contrasts and its intricacy. 

The problem is further complicated when there are, also, 
inclinations, to the right or to the left, to be balanced. 




Kg. 232 



In this case I have tried to balance, on the center of a sym- 
metrical inclosure, various extensions and inclinations of 
tone-contrast, the movement of a convergence, and the force 
of a somewhat intricate and unstable symmetry. 

These occult forms of Balance are not yet well understood, 



TONE-BALANCE 181 

and I feel considerable hesitation in speaking of them. We 
have certainly a great deal to learn about them. They are 
far better understood by the Chinese and by the Japanese 
than by us. 

181. When any line or spot has a meaning, when there 
is any symbolism or representation in it, it may gain an 
indefinite force of attraction. This, however, is a force of 
attraction for the mind rather than for the eye. It affects 
different persons in different measures. The consideration 
of such attractions, suggestions, meanings, or significations 
does not belong to Pure Design but to Symbolism or to 
Representation. 



TONE-RHYTHM 

182. THE idea of Tone-Rhythm is expressed in every reg- 
ular and perfect gradation of Tones; of values, of colors or 
of color-intensities, provided the eye is drawn through the 
gradation in one direction or in a series or sequence of direc- 
tions. This happens when there is a greater tone-contrast 
at one end of the gradation than at the other. When the 
terminal contrasts are equal there is no reason why the eye 
should move through the gradation in any particular direc- 
tion. According to our definition of Rhythm, the gradation 
should be marked in its stages or measures, and the stages 
or measures should be regular. That is certainly true, but 
in all regular and perfect gradations I feel that correspond- 
ing changes are taking place in corresponding measures, and 
I get the same feeling from such a gradation that I get 
from it when it is marked off in equal sections. Though the 
measures in regular and perfect gradations are not marked, 
they are, it seems to me, felt. They seem sufficiently marked 
by the regularity and perfection of the gradation, any irreg- 
ularity or imperfection being appreciable as a break in the 
measure. I am inclined, therefore, to say of any regular and 
perfect gradation that it is rhythmical provided the direction 
of movement is unmistakable. The direction, as I have said, 
depends upon the relation of terminal contrasts. The eye 
is drawn toward the greater contrast, whatever that is and 
wherever it is. A few examples will make this clear. 

M 



Blk LD D HD M LLt Lt HLt Wt 

In this case we have the gradation of the Scale of Values set 
on a ground-tone of the middle value. Here there are two 



TONE-RHYTHM 183 

opposed gradations with equal contrasts at the opposite 
ends. The result is Balance, not Rhythm. 



Wt 



Blk LD D HD M LLt Lt HLt Wt 

In this case we have a gradation of values beginning with 
White on White, no contrast at all, and reaching ultimately 
the contrast of Black and White. The eye is drawn through 
the tones of this gradation in the direction of this contrast, 
that is to say, from right to left. It is a clear case of 
Rhythm. If, instead of white, we had black, as a ground- 
tone, the movement of the rhythm would be in the opposite 
direction, from left to right. 

Wt HLt Lt LLt M HD D LD Blk 
Blk LD D HD M LLt Lt HLt Wt 

In this case, as in the first, we have equally great contrasts 
at the ends and no contrast at the middle. The result is 
Balance, not Rhythm. 

y 

Y YG G GB B BV 

In this case, disregarding possible differences of value and 
color-intensities, there will be a color-rhythm proceeding 
from right to left. The contrast to which the eye will be 
drawn is the color-contrast of Yellow and Violet. 

LD-V 

D-Y HD-YG M-G LLt-GB Lt-B HLt-BV 

In this case, disregarding possible differences of intensity, 
there will be a rhythm of color moving from right to left 
and a rhythm of values moving from left to right. Assuming 
that we are equally attracted by corresponding value and 
color-contrasts, these two rhythms, when produced, will neu- 
tralize one another and we shall have an illustration of Tone- 



184 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

Balance rather than Tone-Rhythm. If corresponding color 
and value-contrasts are not equally attractive we shall have 
an unequal tug-of-war between the two rhythms. 

__ LD-V _ 
HLt-Y Lt-YG LLt-G M-GB HD-B D-BV 

In this case we have two rhythms, one of values and one of 
colors, in a Harmony of Direction. The direction of move- 
ment will be from right to left. 



_ 
HLt-Y HLt-YJ HLt-Yf HLt-Y HLt-Yf HLt-Yf 

In this case we have no change of color and no change of 
value, but a rhythm of the intensities of one color, in one 
value. The movement will be from right to left. The 
ground-tone might be Neutral High Light, the zero-inten- 
sity of Yellow. That would not change the direction of the 
movement. 

_ LD-Yfr _ 
HLt-Y Lt-YJ LLt-Yg M-Yf HD-Y| D-Yf 

In this case I have indicated a combined movement of 
values and color-intensities. The direction of the movement 
will be from right to left. 

The tone-rhythms which I have described are based upon 
the repetition at regular intervals of a certain change of value, 
of color or of color-intensity. We have Harmony, of course, 
in the repetition of equal changes, though the changes are not 
the same changes. The change of value from Middle to Low 
Light is equal to the change from Low Light to Light, though 
these changes are not the same changes. The Harmony, is, 
therefore, the Harmony of equivalent contrasts which are not 
the same contrasts. 

183. We have more or less movement in every compo- 
sition of tones which is unbalanced, in which the eye is not 



TONE-RHYTHM 185 

held between equivalent attractions, either upon a vertical 
axis or upon a center. In all such cases, of tones unbalanced, 
the movement is in the direction of the greatest contrast. 
Unless the movement is regular and marked in its measures, 
as I think it is in all regular and perfect gradations, the 
movement is not rhythmical. We get Rhythm, however, in 
the repetition of the movement, whatever it is, in equal or 
lawfully varying measures, provided the direction of the move- 
ment remains the same or changes regularly or gradually. 
If the line of the movement is up-to-the-right forty-five de- 
grees we have rhythm in the repetition of the movement at 
equal or lawfully varying intervals, without changes of direc- 
tion; but we should have Rhythm, also, if the direction of 
the movement, in its repetitions, were changed, regularly or 
gradually; if, for example, the direction were changed first 
from up-right forty-five degrees to up-right forty degrees, 
then to up-right thirty-five degrees, then to up-right thirty 
degrees, this at equal or at lawfully varying intervals. In 
this way the movement of the composition repeated may be 
carried on and gradually developed in the movement of the 
series. A reference to Fig. 161, p. 94, and to Fig. 119, p. 68, 
will help the reader to understand these statements. 

184. When any unbalanced composition of tones is singly 
inverted upon a vertical axis and the movement of the 
composition follows the axis, either up or down, and this 
movement, up or down, is repeated, up or down, we get 
forms of Tone-Rhythm which are also forms of Symmetrical 
Balance. In the inversions and repetitions of the tone-com- 
position we have Tone-Harmony. As the tones in the re- 
peated composition have certain positions, measures, and 
shapes, the Harmony, the Balance, and the Rhythm are of 
Positions, Measures, and Shapes as well as of Tones; so we 
get the combination of all the terms of Design in all the three 
modes of Design. 



COMPOSITION 

THREE GENERAL RULES 

185. IT is quite impossible for me, in this discussion of 
terms and principles, to indicate, in any measure, the possibil- 
ities of composition, in lines and spots of paint, in tones, mea- 
sures, and shapes. This is in no sense a Book of Designs. All 
I have undertaken to do is to give a few very simple examples 
and to indicate the kind of reasoning to be followed, recom- 
mending the same kind of reasoning in all cases. There are 
three general rules, however, which I must state. 

First. Given a certain outline and certain tones, measures, 
and shapes to be put into it, it is the Problem of Pure Design 
to do the best we can, getting as many connections making 
unity as possible. The process is one of experimenting, observ- 
ing, comparing, judging, arranging and rearranging, taking 
no end of time and pains to achieve Order, the utmost possible 
Order, if possible the Beautiful. 

Second. When only an outline is given and we can put into 
it lines and spots of paint, tones, measures, and shapes, 
ad libitum, we must be sure that in the addition and multipli- 
cation of features we do not get less Order than we had in 
the simple outline with which we started, when it had nothing 
in it. As we proceed to add features we must be sure that we 
are not diminishing the order of the composition as a whole. 
If the composition as a whole is orderly, we do not want to 
make it less so by cutting it up and introducing additional 
attractions which may be disorderly and confusing. It may 
be harder to achieve Order with a greater number and variety 
of terms. We may deserve credit for overcoming this diffi- 
culty, but it is a difficulty which confronts us only when the 
terms are given and we have to make the best of them. 
When no terms are given, only a perfectly orderly outline, we 



COMPOSITION 



187 



should hesitate before we put anything into it. If we add 
anything we must be sure that it does not diminish, in the 
slightest degree, the order we had before, when we had 
nothing but the outline. The order of the whole must never 
be diminished. 

Third. When we have an outline with certain tones, mea- 
sures, and shapes in it, the question is: whether we can in- 
crease the order by adding other tones, other measures, or 
other shapes. 



D 




n 
n 



Fig. 233 

Arrangement "a" is less orderly than arrangement "b," so I 
have acted wisely in adding the other outlines. 



D 




Fig. 234 



In this case, however, I have added features without achieving 
any increase of Order in the composition. The order is less 
than it was before. The additions have no interest from the 
point of view of Pure Design. I may add features for the 



188 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

sake of variety or novelty, to give a change of feeling, a new 
sensation, but such motives are not the motives of Pure 
Design. In Pure Design our motive is, always, to achieve 
Order, in the hope that in so doing we may achieve a supreme 
instance of it which will be beautiful. 






Consider these illustrations. Arrangement " b " is more orderly 
than arrangement "a," so I am justified in making the addi- 
tions. The additions have brought occult balance into the 
composition with Direction and Interval-Harmony. Arrange- 
ment "c" is less orderly than "b," less orderly than "a." It 
has, therefore, no value for us. There is no merit in the 
multiplication of features which it exhibits. The surface is 
" enriched " at the expense of Direction-Harmony, Interval- 
Harmony, and Shape-Harmony. There may be an approxi- 
mation to an occult balance in arrangement "c," but you 
cannot feel it unmistakably as you do in "b." Its value is, 
therefore, less. 

186. I object to the word "decoration," as commonly used 
by designers, because it implies that additions are likely to be 
improvements, that to multiply features, to enrich surfaces, 
is worth while or desirable. The fact is, that additions are, as 
a rule, to be avoided. There is no merit in the mere multiplica- 
tion of features. It is a mistake. The rule of Pure Design, and 
it is the rule for all Design, is simplification rather than com- 
plication. As designers we ought to avoid additions, if possible. 



COMPOSITION 189 

We ought to make them only when in so doing we are able to 
increase the order of the whole. We make additions, indeed, 
to achieve the greater simplicity of Order, and for no other 
reason. Our object in all cases is to achieve Order, if pos- 
sible a supreme instance of Order which will be beautiful. 
We ami at Order and hope for Beauty. 



THE STUDY OF ORDER IN NATURE AND IN 
WORKS OF ART 

187. IN connection with the practice of Pure Design, as I 
have described it, the composition and arrangement of lines 
and spots of paint; of tones, measures, and shapes: this in the 
modes of Harmony, Balance, and Rhythm, for the sake of 
Order and in the hope of Beauty, the student should take 
up the study of Order in its three modes, as revealed in 
Nature and achieved in Works of Art. 

188. The method of study should be a combination of 
analysis with synthetic reproduction. Taking any instance of 
Order, whether in Nature or in some work of Art, the first 
thing to do is to consider its terms, its positions, its lines, 
its areas, its measure and space-relations, its tones and tone- 
relations, bringing every element to separate and exact defi- 
nition. The next thing to do is to note every occurrence of 
Harmony, of Balance, of Rhythm, every connection making 
for consistency, unity, Order. In that way we shall get an 
exact knowledge of the case. We shall know all the facts, so 
far as the terms and the principles of Design are concerned. 
That is what I mean by analysis. By a synthetic reproduction 
I mean a reproduction of the effect or design, whatever it is, 
following the images which we have in mind as the result of 
our analysis. The reproduction should be made without refer- 
ence to the effect or design which has been analyzed. There 
should be no direct imitation, no copying. We must not depend 
so much upon the memory as upon the imagination. Having 
reproduced the effect or design in this way, following the 
suggestions of the imagination, the reproduction should be 
brought into comparison with the effect or design reproduced 
and the differences noted. Differences should be carefully 



ORDER IN NATURE AND IN WORKS OF ART 191 

observed and the previous analysis should be reviewed and 
reconsidered. When this is done another attempt at repro- 
duction should be made. This process should be repeated 
until the effect or design is thoroughly understood and im- 
aginatively grasped. The evidence of understanding and com- 
prehension will be seen in the reproduction which is made, 
which ought to have an essential but not a literal correspond- 
ence with the original. Analysis should precede; synthesis 
should follow. 

I hope, in another book or books, to be published later, to 
give some examples of Order in natural objects or effects, also 
examples of Order in Works of Art, with a careful analysis of 
each one, showing how the points, lines, and areas, the mea- 
sure and the space-relations, the tones and tone-relations 
come together in the forms of Harmony, Balance, and 
Rhythm, in the modes of Order, in instances of Beauty. In 
the mean time, as the methods of analytic study and of syn- 
thetic practice are clearly indicated in the preceding pages, 
the student who has taken pains to understand what he has 
read will find himself well prepared for the work. He can 
take up the study of Order in Nature and of Design in 
Works of Art without further assistance. 



CONCLUSION 

189. IT does not follow, even when our minds, in conse- 
quence of the study and the practice which I have described, 
are richly stored with the terms and the motives of Design, 
that we shall produce anything important or remarkable. 
Important work comes only from important people. What 
we accomplish, at best, is merely the measure and expression 
of our own personalities. Nevertheless, though we may not 
be able to produce anything important, it is something to ap- 
preciate and enjoy what is achieved by others. If our studies 
and our work bring us to the point of visual discrimina- 
tion, to aesthetic appreciation and enjoyment, and no farther, 
we are distinguished among men. The rarest thing in the 
world is creative genius, the faculty which creates great 
works. Next to that comes the faculty of appreciation. 
That, too, is rare. We must not believe that appreciation is 
easy. It is true that the recognition of Order is instinctive 
and spontaneous, but untrained people recognize it only in a 
few simple and obvious forms. Order in its higher forms - 
the order of a great number and variety of terms and of dif- 
ferent principles in combination lies altogether beyond the 
appreciation of untrained people. It is only as we are 
trained, exercised, and practiced in the use of terms and in 
following principles that we rise to the appreciation of great 
achievements. The sense of order, which we all have, in a 
measure, needs to be exercised and developed. The sponta- 
neity of undeveloped faculty does not count for much. It 
carries us only a little way. Let no one believe that without 
study and practice in Design he can recognize and appreciate 
what is best in Design. 

Appreciation and enjoyment are the rewards of hard think- 
ing with hard work. In order to appreciate the masterpiece 



CONCLUSION 193 

we must have some knowledge of the terms which the artist 
has used and the principles which he has followed. We know 
the terms only when we have ourselves used them, and the 
principles when we have tried to follow them. The reason why 
the appreciation of excellence in speech and in writing is so 
widespread is due to the fact that we all speak and write, 
constantly, and try, so many of us, to speak and write well. 
The reason why there is so little appreciation of excellence 
in other forms of art is due to the fact that the terms are 
not in general use and the principles are not understood, as 
they should be, in the light of personal experience and effort. 
It is for this reason that I am anxious to see the teaching 
and practice of Design introduced into the schools, public 
and private, everywhere, and into our colleges as well as our 
schools. I have no idea that many able designers will be 
produced, but what I expect, as a result of this teaching, is a 
more general understanding of Design, more interest in it, 
and more appreciation and enjoyment of its achievements. 
Among the many who will appreciate and enjoy will be found 
the few who will create and produce. 

The purpose of what is called art-teaching should be the 
production, not of objects, but of faculties, the faculties 
which being exercised will produce objects of Art, naturally, 
inevitably. Instead of trying to teach people to produce 
Art, which is absurd and impossible, we must give them a 
training which will induce visual sensitiveness with aesthetic 
discrimination, an interest in the tones, measures, and shapes 
of things, the perception and appreciation of Order, the sense 
of Beauty. In these faculties we have the causes of Art. In- 
ducing the causes, Art will follow as a matter of course. 
In exercising and developing the faculties which I have 
named, which naturally and inevitably produce Art, we are 
doing all that can be done by teaching. There is no better 
training for the visual and aesthetic faculties than is found in 
the practice of Pure Design, inducing, as it does, discrimina- 
tion in tones, measures, and shapes, and the appreciation of 



194 DRAWING AND PAINTING IN PURE DESIGN 

what is orderly and beautiful. The result of the practice 
will be a wide spread of visual and aesthetic faculty which 
will have, as its natural and inevitable result, the apprecia- 
tion and the production of Works of Art. 

Our object, then, in the study and practice of Pure De- 
sign is, not so much the production of Works of Art, as it 
is to induce in ourselves the art-loving and art-producing 
faculties. With these faculties we shall be able to discover 
Order and Beauty everywhere, and life will be happier and 
better worth living, whether we produce Works of Art, our- 
selves, or not. We shall have an impulse which will lead us 
to produce Works of Art if we can. At the same time we 
shall have the judgment which will tell us whether what we 
have done is or is not beautiful. 



PARAGRAPH 



PARAGRAPH INDEX 



1, p. 1. The Meaning of Design. 

2, p. 1. The Order of Harmony. 

3, p. 1. The Order of Balance. 

4, p. 2. The Order of Rhythm. 

5, p. 2. Relations of Harmony, Balance, 

and Rhythm. 

6, p. 4. Beauty a supreme instance of 

Order. 

7, p. 4. The Arts as different modes of 

Expression. 

8, p. 5. Drawing and Painting. 

9, p. 5. Two modes of Drawing and 

Painting. 

10, p. 5. Pure Design. 

11, p. 6. Applied Design. 

12, p. 7. Representation. 

13, p. 7. Representation in Forms of De- 

sign. 

14, p. 9. The Definition of Positions. 

15, p. 9. The Relation of Directions and 

Distances. 

16, p. 10. Directions defined. 

17, p. 11. Distances defined. 

18, p. 11. Positions determined by Tri- 

angulations. 

19, p. 11. Intervals. 

20, p. 12. Scale in Relations of Position. 

21, p. 12. Harmony of Positions. 

22, p. 12. Harmony of Directions. 

23, p. 13. Harmony of Distances. 

24, p. 14. Harmony of Intervals. 

25, p. 16. Intervals in any series of Posi- 

tions. 

26, p. 17. Positions and their possibili- 

ties. 

27, p. 17. Balance of opposite Directions. 

28, p. 17. Balance of Distances in oppo- 

site Directions. 

29, p. 18. Balance of Directions not oppo- 

site. 

30, p. 18. Balance of Distances in Direc- 

tions not opposite. 



31, p. 19. Positions in Balance. 

32, p. 19. Stable equilibrium of vertical 

and horizontal directions. 

33, p. 20. Symmetry defined. 

34, p. 21. The central axis should pre- 

dominate in symmetrical Bal- 
ances. 

35, p. 22. Balance in Relations of Posi- 

tion, when inverted. 

36, p. 22. Finding the center of equili- 

brium in unbalanced relations 
of position. Indication of cen- 
ters by symmetrical inclos- 
ures. 

37, p. 24. Tendency of symmetrical in- 

closures, when sufficiently at- 
tractive, to prevent movement. 

38, p. 25. How unstable equilibrium sug- 

gests movement. 

39, p. 26. Rhythmic movement in a grad- 

ual increase in the number of 
attractions through a series of 
visual angles. 

40, p. 27. The possibilities of rhythmic 

movement in relations of posi- 
tion. 

41, p. 27. Balanced attractions at equal 

intervals give no movement, 
consequently no Rhythm. 

42, p. 28. The gradual increase of attrac- 

tions in a series of visual angles, 
as produced by gradual changes 
of scale, causes rhythmic move- 
ment. 

43, p. 28. How unbalanced groups of po- 

sitions being repeated at equal 
intervals produce rhythmic 
movement. 

44, p. 29. Rhythmic movements produced 

by the repetition of unbalanced 
relations of position and by a 
gradual diminution of scale. 



198 



PARAGRAPH INDEX 



45, p. 30. Rhythmic movements produced 

by the repetition of a balanced 
relation of positions with a 
gradual diminution of intervals, 
causing a gradual increase of 
attractions through a series of 
visual angles. 

46, p. 30. Rhythmic movements produced 

by the repetition of a balanced 
relation of positions with dimi- 
nution of intervals and of scale. 

47, p. 31. Rhythmic movements produced 

by the repetition of an unbal- 
anced relation of positions with 
a crowding due to gradual dimi- 
nution of intervals. 

48, p. 31. Rhythmic movements produced 

by the repetition of an unbal- 
anced relation of positions with 
a diminution of measure in the 
intervals and of scale in the 
groups. The combination of 
two or more rhythms. 

49, p. 32. The combination of two or 

more rhythms. 

50, p. 32. Relations of position in differ- 

ent attitudes. 

51, p. 33. Principal Attitudes. 

52, p. 34. Harmony in Attitudes. 

63, p. 35. Harmony in the repetition of 
any relation of attitudes. 

54, p. 35. Balance in Attitudes. 

55, p. 36. Rhythm in Attitudes. 

56, p. 37. The Line. 

57, p. 37. Changes of Direction in a line. 

Angles. 

58, p. 38. Gradual changes of Direction 

in a line. Curves. 

59, p. 41. Curves regarded as composi- 

tions of circular arcs. 

60, p. 42. Differences of scale in lines. 

61, p. 42. Differences of attractive force 

in lines. 

62, p. 44. Harmony of Direction in lines. 

63, p. 44. Harmony of Angles in lines. 

64, p. 45. Harmony in Legs of Angles. 

65, p. 45. Harmony in Curvatures. 

66, p. 46. Harmony in Arcs when they 

have the same radius. 



67, p. 46. Harmony in Ares when they 

have the same angle. 

68, p. 47. Linear Progressions. 

69, p. 47. Variations of scale in Linear 

Progressions. 

70, p. 48. Changes of Direction in Linear 

Progressions. 

71, p. 49. Inversions in Linear Progres- 

sions. 

72, p. 50. Balance in a Line. 

73, p. 51. Appreciation of Balance in a 

line depends very much on its 
attitude. 

74, p. 52. Balance of Inclinations in a 

line. 

75, p. 54. Finding the center of equili- 

brium of a line and indicating 
that center by a symmetrical 
inclosure. 

76, p. 56. Rhythm in a Line. 

77, p. 56. Rhythm requires more than 

movement. The movement must 
be in regular and marked mea- 
sures. 

78, p. 57. The number of repetitions re- 

quired in a Rhythm. 

79, p. 57. Contrary movements in 

Rhythms. 

80, p. 58. Regular alternations in space 

not necessarily rhythmical. 
That depends upon the char- 
acter of the motive. 

81, p. 59. Repetition and alternation with- 

out Rhythm. 

82, p. 59. Rhythm due to gradation of 

scale. 

83, p. 60. Rhythm due to the gradual in- 

crease in the number of attrac- 
tions from measure to measure. 

84, p. 61. Rhythm in Spiral Concentra- 

tions. 

85, p. 63. Direct and Contrary Motion in 

Spiral lines. 

86, p. 64. The Balance of corresponding 

but opposed Rhythms. 

87, p. 64. Lines in different Attitudes. 

88, p. 65. Harmony in Attitudes of lines. 

89, p. 66. Harmony in the repetition of 

any relation of attitudes. 



PARAGRAPH INDEX 



199 



90, p. 66. Balance in Attitudes of Lines. 

91, p. 67. Rhythm in Attitudes of Lines. 

92, p. 68. Recapitulation. 

93, p. 68. The Composition of Lines. 

94, p. 69. Harmony in the Composi- 

tion of Lines. 

95, p. 70. Measure-Harmony of ratios 

and of proportions. 

96, p. 70. Elements making for Har- 

mony in dissimilar lines. 

97, p. 73. Balance in the Composition 

of Lines. 

98, p. 74. Shape-Harmony without 

Measure-Harmony. 

99, p. 74. Measure-Balance without 

Shape-Balance. 

100, p. 76. The centers of equilibrium 

in mere measure-balances 
should be indicated by sym- 
metrical inclosures. 

101, p. 76. Balance of Inclinations. 

102, p. 79. Measure-Rhythm in the 

Composition of Lines. 

103, p. 80. The combination of various 

types of rhythmic move- 
ment. 

104, p. 86. Rhythm not necessarily in- 

consistent with Balance. 
106, p. 89. The Composition of various 
lines. 

106, p. 96. Outlines. 

107, p. 96. Harmony, Balance, and 

Rhythm in Outlines. 

108, p. 102. Interior Dimensions of an 

Outline. 

109, p. 102. Harmony of Interior Dimen- 

sions. 

110, p. 104. Convergence as a cause of 

movement. 

111, p. 108. Rhythm of Convergence. 

Contrary Motion in Conver- 
gences. 

112, p. 109. Changes of Direction in 

Convergences. 

113, p. 110. Ideas of association in rhyth- 

mic movements. Rhythm in 
changes of shape. 

114, p. 112. Outlines in different Atti- 

tudes. 



115, p. 112. Harmony, Balance, and 

Rhythm in the Attitudes of 
Outlines. 

116, p. 112. The Composition of Out- 

lines. 

117, p. 124. The purpose of designing to 

induce the sense of Beauty 
which is the cause of all that 
is fine in Design. 

118, p. 125. Areas. 

119, p. 125. Linear Areas. 

120, p. 125. Changes of width-measure in 

Linear Progressions. 

121, p. 129. Areas defined by outlines, 

and also by tone-contrasts. 

122, p. 131. The Composition of Areas as 

defined by tone-contrasts. 

123, p. 131. Difference between drawing 

and painting, if there is any. 

124, p. 131. Definition of the word Tone. 

125, p. 132. Tone-Analysis. 

126, p. 132. The study of Tones and Tone- 

Relations. 

127, p. 133. Pigment-Materials. 

128, p. 133. The Scale of Neutral Values. 

129, p. 134. Contrasts of the Scale of 

Values. 

130, p. 135. Definition of Value-Rela- 

tions. 

131, p. 136. Scales of Colors in Different 

Values. 

132, p. 137. Definition of the terms used 

to describe different Colors. 

133, p. 138. Color-Intensities found in dif- 

ferent values. 

134, p. 139. Value-Relation of different 

Colors shown in the Spec- 
trum. 

135, p. 139. The Spectrum a sequence not 

a circuit ; a circuit in pig- 
ments only. 

136, p. 140. The Complementaries. 

137, p. 140. A General Classification of 

Tones as to Value, Color, 
Color-Intensity, and Color- 
Neutralization. 

138, p. 141. The distinction between 

Color-Intensities and Color- 
Neutralizations. 



200 



PARAGRAPH INDEX 



139, p. 141. Definition of particular tones. 

140, p. 141. Theoretical character of our 

classification of tones. 

141, p. 142. Definition of particular tone- 

relations. 

142, p. 143. Sequences of Values and 

Colors. 

143, p. 143. The Sequence of Neutral 

Values. 

144, p. 144. Vertical Sequences. 

145, p. 144. Horizontal Sequences. 

146, p. 144. Diagonal Sequences. 

147, p. 145. Diagonal Sequences of the 

Right and Left Modes. 

148, p. 146. Different Intervals in Diago- 

nal Sequences. 

149, p. 146. Peculiar value of the Diago- 

nal Sequence of Colors at the 
interval of the Fifth. The 
four Triads. 

150, p. 147. Sequences in which a certain 

relation of intervals is re- 
peated. 

151, p. 147. The combination of two or 

more Vertical Sequences. 

152, p. 148. The combination of two or 

more Horizontal Sequences. 

153, p. 149. The Combination of Diagonal 

Sequences of the same and 
different modes. 
Alternations in Vertical Se- 



154, p. 151 

155, p. 151 

156, p. 151 



qnences. 

Alternations in Horizontal 
Sequences. 

Alternations of different 
value-intervals in color-se- 
quences of equal intervals. 

157, p. 153. Alternations of different 

color-intervals in value-se- 
quences of equal intervals. 
Particular Sequences recom- 
mended. 

158, p. 153. Possibility of extending the 

classification of values and 
colors to a scale of seventeen 
values, including Black and 
White. 

159, p. 154. The method of using the Se- 

quences described. Possible 



extension of the sequence by 
mixtures. 

160, p. 155. The value of the sequences 

found in the more definite 
thinking which they make 
possible, and in the Harmony 
of repetitions. 

161, p. 156. Considerations of position, 

measure, and shape in tone- 
relations. 

162, p. 158. Tone-Harmony. 

163, p. 158. Tones harmonized on the 

palette or by changes in the 
design. 

164, p. 159. Value-Harmony. 

165, p. 161. Color-Harmony. 

166, p. 163. Harmony of proportional 

neutralizations. 

167, p. 164. Value-Harmony and the Har- 

mony of Proportional Neu- 
tralizations combined. 

168, p. 167. Harmony in the repetition of 

a certain relation of tones not 
in itself harmonious. 

169, p. 170. Harmony of a predominant 

tone in the repetition of a cer- 
tain relation of tones. 

170, p. 170. The Harmony of a grayness 

induced by the opposition of 
tones which neutralize one 
another in the sense of vision. 

171, p. 171. Strong contrasts, inconsistent 

with Harmony, may be per- 
fectly consistent with both 
Balance and Rhythm. 

172, p. 172. Tone-Balance in the abstract. 

173, p. 173. Use of the Diagram of Values 

and Colors for the calcula- 
tion of tone-balances. 

174, p. 174. Element of Color-Intensity 

in tone-balances. 

175, p. 174. Tone-Balances always con- 

nected with Measure and 
Shape-Balances. 

176, p. 175. Tone and Measure-Balance. 

177, p. 175. Tone-Relations in Single and 

in Double Inversions. 

178, p. 176. Occult Tone, Measure and 

Shape-Balances. 



PARAGRAPH INDEX 



201 



179, p. 178. Further considerations on the 

same subject. 

180, p. 178. Further considerations on the 

same subject. 

181, p. 181. The effect of Representations 

in Tone-Balances. 

182, p. 182. Tone-Rhythm. 

183, p. 184. Attitudes in Tone-Rhythms. 

184, p. 185. Inversions in Tone-Rhythms. 

185, p. 186. Composition of tones, mea- 



sures, and shapes. Three gen- 
eral rules. 

186, p. 188. Design and " Decoration." 

187, p. 190. The study of Order in Na- 

ture and in Works of Art. 

188, p. 190. Method of study by Analysis 

with Synthetic Performance. 

189, p. 192. Conclusion. The practice of 

Pure Design. Its purpose 
and end. 



CAMBRIDGE MASSACHUSETTS 
U S A 



BINDING SECT. JUN 1 1982 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



NC Ross, Denman Waldo 

703 A theory of pure design 

R7 

cop. 2 



Biological 
& Medical 



77